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Snake Oil


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Back in the days of America’s Wild West, when cowboys roamed the range and people were getting themselves caught up in gunfights, a new phrase — ‘snake oil’ — entered the language. It was a dismissive term for the patent medicines, often useless, sold by travelling traders who always claimed miraculous cures for everything from baldness to snakebite.

Selling ‘snake oil’ was almost as risky a business as cattle stealing; you might be run out of town if your particular medicine, as you realised it would, failed to live up to its claims. Consequently, the smarter ‘snake oil’ sellers left town before their customers had much chance to evaluate the ‘cure’ they had just bought.

The remarkable thing about many of the medicines dismissed then as ‘snake oil’ is not so much that they failed to live up to the outrageous claims made for them — those that weren’t harmless coloured water could be positively dangerous. What’s remarkable is that so many of the claims made for some of these remedies, or at least their ingredients, most of them plant based, have since been found to have at least some basis in fact.

One, Echinacea, eventually turned out to be far more potent than even its original promoter claimed. Echinacea first appeared in ‘Meyer s Blood Purifier’, promoted as a cure-all by a Dr H.C.F. Meyer — a lay doctor with no medical qualifications. ‘Meyer’s Blood Purifier’ claimed not only to cure snakebite, but also to eliminate a host of other ailments.

Native to North America, the roots of Echinacea, or purple coneflower, had been used by the Plains Indians for all kinds of ailments long before Meyer came along. They applied poultices of it to wounds and stings, used it for teeth and gum disease and made a tea from it to treat everything from colds and measles to arthritis. They even used it for snakebite.

Settlers quickly picked up on the plant’s usefulness but until Meyer sent samples of his John ‘blood purifier to Lloyd, a pharmacist, it remained a folk remedy. Initially dismissing Meyer’s claims as nonsense, Lloyd was eventually converted after a colleague, John King, tested the herb and successfully used it to treat bee stings and nasal congestion.

In fact, he went much further in his claims than Meyer ever did and by the 1890s a bottle of tincture¹ of Echinacea could be found in almost every American home, incidentally making a fortune for Lloyd’s company, Lloyd Brothers Pharmacy.

As modern antibiotics became available, the use of Echinacea products declined and from the 1940s to the 1970s it was pretty much forgotten in the USA. It was a different story in Europe, where both French and German herbalists and homeopaths continued to make extensive use of it.

It had been introduced there by Gerhard Madaus, who travelled from Germany to America in 1937, returning with seed to establish commercial plots of Echinacea. His firm conducted extensive research on echinacin, a concentrate they made from the juice of flowering tops of the plants he had brought back. It was put into ointments, liquids internal and external use, and into products for injections.

There is no evidence that Echinacea is effective against snakebite, but Dr Meyer — who genuinely believed in Echinacea — would probably be quite amused if he could come back and see the uses to which modern science has put ‘his’ herb. He might not be surprised that science has confirmed Echinacea’s role as a treatment for wounds, or it has been found to be helpful in relieving arthritis, both claims Meyer made for the herb.

He might though be surprised to learn how Echinacea is proving to be an effective weapon against all sorts of disease, particularly infections. German researchers had used it successfully to treat a range of infections and found it to be effective against bacteria and protozoa².

There are many other intriguing medical possibilities for extracts from the herb, but its apparent ability to help with our more common ailments has seen thousands of people become enthusiastic converts. Dozens of packaged products containing extracts of Echinacea can now be found amongst the many herbal remedies and supplements on the shelves of health stores and pharmacies. Many of those might be the modem equivalents of ‘snake oil’, but Echinacea at least does seem to have some practical value.

Echinacea is a dry prairie plant, drought-resistant and pretty tolerant of most soils, although it does best in good soil with plenty of sun. Plants are usually grown from seed but they are sometimes available from nurseries. Echinacea is a distinctive perennial with erect, hairy, spotted stems up to a metre tall. Flower heads look like daisies, with purple rayed florets and a dark brown central cone. The leaves are hairy; the lower leaves are oval to lance-shaped and coarsely and irregularly toothed.

There are nine species of Echinacea in all but only three are generally grown for medicinal use. All have similar medicinal properties. Most European studies have used liquid concentrates extracted from the tops of plants, whereas extraction in the USA has usually been from the roots. Today most manufacturers blend both, sometimes adding flowers and seeds to improve the quality.

For the home grower, the roots of all species seem equally effective. Dig them up in autumn after the tops have died back after the first frost. Wash and dry them carefully and store them in glass containers. You can harvest the tops throughout the summer and even eat small amounts of leaf straight from the plant.

Even if you don’t make your fortune from this herb, there are few sights more attractive than a field of purple coneflowers in all their glory. And with a few Echinacea plants nearby, you’ll never go short of a cure.

¹ a liquid containing a special ingredient

²  a type of micro-organism

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Indian fashion and textile industries


During the 1950s, the Indian fashion scene was exciting, stylish and very graceful. There were no celebrity designers or models, nor were there any labels that were widely recognized. The value of a garment was judged by its style and fabric rather than by who made it. It was regarded as perfectly acceptable, even for high-society women, to approach an unknown tailor who could make a garment for a few rupees, providing the perfect fit, finish and style. They were proud of getting a bargain, and of giving their own name to the end result.

The 1960s was an era full of mischievousness and celebration in the arts, music and cinema. The period was characterized by freedom from restrictions and, in the fashion world, an acceptance of innovative types of material such as plastic and coated polyester. Tight-fitting kurtas and churidars and high coiffures were a trend among women.

The following decade witnessed an increase in the export of traditional materials, and the arrival in India of international fashion. Synthetics became trendy, and the disco culture affected the fashion scene.

It was in the early 80s when the first fashion store ‘Ravissant’ opened in Mumbai. At that time garments were retailed for a four-figure price tag. American designers like Calvin Klein became popular. In India too, contours became more masculine, and even the salwar kameez was designed with shoulder pads.

With the evolution of designer stores came the culture of designer fashion, along with its hefty price tags. Whatever a garment was like, consumers were convinced that a higher price tag signified elegant designer fashion, so garments were sold at unbelievable prices. Meanwhile, designers decided to get themselves noticed by making showy outfits and associating with the right celebrities. Soon, fashion shows became competitive, each designer attempting to out-do the other in theme, guest list and media coverage.

In the last decade of millennium, the market shrank and ethnic wear made a comeback. During the recession, there was a push to sell at any cost. With fierce competition the inevitable occurred: the once hefty price tags began their download journey, and the fashion-show industry followed suit. However, the liveliness of the Indian fashion scene had not ended – it had merely reached a stable level.

At the beginning of 21st century, with new designers and models, and more sensible designs, the fashion industry accelerated once again. As far as the global fashion industry is concerned, Indian ethnic designs and materials are currently in demand from fashion houses and garment manufacturers. India is the third largest producer of cotton, the second largest producer of silk, and the fifth largest producer of man-made fibres in the world.

The Indian garment and fabric industries have many fundamental advantages, in terms of cheaper, skilled work force, cost-effective production, raw materials, flexibility and a wide range of designs with sequins, beadwork and embroidery. In addition, that India provides garments to international fashion houses at competitive prices, with a shorter lead time, and an effective monopoly on certain designs, is accepted the whole world over. India has always been regarded as the default source in the embroidered garment segment, but changes in the rate of exchange between the rupee and the dollar has further depressed prices, thereby attracting more buyers. So the international fashion houses walk away with customized goods, and craftwork is sold at very low rates.

As far as the fabric market is concerned, the range available in India an attract as well as confuse the buyer. Much of the production takes place in the small town of Chapa in the eastern state of Bihar, a name one might never have heard of. Here fabric-making is a family industry; the range and quality of raw silks churned out here belie the crude production methods and equipment. Surat in Gujrat, is the supplier of an amazing set of jacquards, moss crepes and georgette sheers – all fabrics in high demand. Another Indian fabric design that has been adopted by the fashion industry is the ‘Madras check’, originally utilized for the universal lungi, a simple lower-body wrap worn in southern India. This design has now found its way on to bandannas, blouses, home furnishings and almost anything one can think of.

Ethinic Indian designs with batik and hand-embroidered motifs have also become popular across the world. Decorative bead work is another product in demand in the international market. Beads are used to prepare accessory items like belts and bags, and beadwork is now available for haute couture evening wear too.

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The world’s largest organism – Fungus


If you are asked what the largest organism in the world is, what would your answer be? A blue whale or a redwood tree? Or perhaps a giant squid? You would be wrong. But this is understandable because the world’s largest organism is largely hidden from sight and was discovered only relatively recently in 1998 in the soil of Oregon’s Blue Mountains. It is a fungus nearly ten square kilometers in area and one metre deep. It may be not only the largest single organism in the world but also one of the oldest. Based on its current rate of growth, the fungus is thought to be around 2,400 years old; however it is also possible that it has been growing for the past 8,650 years. Commonly known as the honey mushroom, the only visible evidence for the organism on the surface is groups of golden mushrooms that grow in forests during autumn.

The discovery of organism came about when Catherine Parks, a scientist at the Pacific Northwest Research Station in Oregon, heard about trees dying from root rot in a forest east of Prairie City. Using aerial photographs, she identified an area of dying trees stretching over a 5.6 kilometre area. She then collected samples from the root of these trees. When she looked at the samples, Parks were able to confirm that many of the samples were infected by the same organism; the fungus had grown bigger than any other creature known to science. A combination of good genes and stable conditions has enabled it to spread. In addition, the dry climate of the region makes it difficult for new fungi to establish themselves and compete with established fungi.

The technique of identifying the fungus was developed in 1992, when the first gigantic fungus was discovered in Michigan. A PhD biology student, Myron Smith, discovered it in a hardwood forest, when he and his team were trying to find the boundaries of individual fungi. After a year of testing, they still had not found the boundary of a particular fungus. The next things they did was develop new genetic tests to see if the DNA from the samples was from a single individual fungus and not closely related to individuals. Eventually, they realized that they had found a 1,500-year-olde fungus that weighted over 90 metric tonnes.

The honey mushroom fungus is the cause of a root disease that kills many trees in the US and Canada. It has fine filaments or tubes that grow along tree roots and connect together to form a mat. The mat then slowly consumes the food source: it produces chemicals that digest carbohydrates from the tree and interfere with the tree’s ability to absorb water and nutrients, eventually leading to the death of the host organism. As well as producing feeding filaments, the honey fungus is able to spread by producing string-like growths that reach out to find new potential food sources. The fungus spread very slowly over hundreds of years, seeking out food and killing its victims. Not surprisingly, forest service scientists are interesting in learning to control the fungus but they also realize that it has an important role to play in the forest’s ecology.

Fungi have both beneficial and harmful effects. They are essential because they decompose or break down waste matter on the forest floor and recycle nutrients. They are also central to many processes that are important to humans: they are vital to the process of making many kinds of food, including cheese bread and wine. They have been used in the production of medicines and particularly antibiotics. Even the golden mushrooms produced by the honey mushroom fungus are edible, though apparently not very tasty. On the other hand, fungi also form a major group of organism harmful to plants and animals. Some mushrooms produced by fungi, such as the death cap mushroom and the fool’s mushroom, are extremely poisonous to humans. Fungi can spoil food which has been stored, and of course they can kill trees and other plants.

Although to humans the idea of an enormous organism silently growing underground seems very strange, Tom Volk, a biology professor at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, explains that this may be in the nature of things for a fungus. ‘We think that these things are not very rare,’ he says. ‘We think that they’re in fact normal.’

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The Kuiper Belt


Located in a region of the Solar System beyond the planets (from 30 AU at Neptune’s orbit to circa 55AU from the Sun), the kuiper Belt, or Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt as many scientists prefer to c…

Source: The Kuiper Belt

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Man vs Man – Black & White


Martin Luther King was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. He was the son of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King. He had an older sister, Willie Christine King, and a younger brother Alfred Daniel Williams King. Growing up in Atlanta, king attended Booker T. Washington High School. He skipped ninth and twelfth grade, and entered Morehouse College at age fifteen without formally graduating from high school. From the time that Martin was born, he knew that black people and white people had different rights in certain parts of America. If a black family wanted to eat at a restaurant, they had to sit in a separate section of the restaurant. They had to sit at the back of the cinema, and even use separate toilets. Worse, and perhaps even more humiliating still, in many southern states, if a black man was on a bus and all the seats were taken, he would have to endure the indignity of relinquishing his own seat to a white man. King could never understand the terrible injustice of this. In 1948, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in sociology. Later, King began doctoral studies in systematic theology at Boston University and received his Doctor of Philosophy on June 5, 1955. King married Coretta Scott, on June 18, 1953 and they had four children.

Returning to the South to become pastor of a Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, King first achieved national renown when he helped mobilise the black boycott of the Montgomery bus system in 1955. This was organised after Rosa Parks, a black woman, refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man – in the segregated south, black people could only sit at the back of the bus. The 382-day boycott led the bus company to change its regulations, and the Supreme Court declared such segregation unconstitutional.

In 1957 King was active in the organisation of the Southern Leadership Christian Conference (SCLC), formed to co-ordinate protests against discrimination. He advocated non-violent direct action based on the methods of Gandhi, who led protests against British rule in India culminating in India’s independence in 1947. In 1963, King led mass protests against discriminatory practices in Birmingham, Alabama, where the white population were violently resisting desegregation. The city was dubbed ‘Bombingham’ attacks against civil rights protesters increased, and King was arrested and jailed for his part in the protests.

After his release, King participated in the enormous civil rights march, in Washington, in August 1963, and delivered his famous ‘I have a dream’ speech, predicting a day when the promise of freedom and equality for all would become a reality in America. In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel peace Prize. In 1965, he led a campaign to register blacks to vote. The same year the US Congress passed the Voting Rights Act outlawing the discriminatory practices that had barred blacks from voting in the south. 

As the civil rights movement became increasingly radicalised, King found that his message of peaceful protest was not shared by many in the younger generation. King began to protest against the Vietnam War and poverty levels in the US. On March 29, 1968, king went to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of the black sanitary public works employees who had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. In one incident, black street repairmen had received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees had been paid for the full day. King could not bear to stand by and let such patent acts of racism go unnoticed. He moved to unite his people, and all the peoples of America on the receiving end of discriminatory practices, to protest for their rights, peacefully and steadfastly. 

On the trip to Memphis, King was booked onto room 306 at the Lorraine Motel, owned by Walter Bailey. King was shot at 6:01 p.m. April 4, 1968 while he was standing on the motel’s second-floor balcony. King was rushed to St. Joseph’s Hospital, where doctors opened his chest and performed manual heart massage. He was pronounced dead at 7:05 p.m. King’s autopsy revealed that although he was only 39 years  old, he had the heart of a 60 year old man.

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Marie curie – life and work


 

Marie curie is probably the most famous women scientist who has ever lived. Born Maria Sklodowska in Poland in 1867, she is famous for her work on radioactivity and was twice a winner of the Nobel Prize. With her husband, Pierre curie, and Henry Becquerel, she was awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for physics, and was then sole winner of the 1911 Nobel prize for chemistry. She was the first women to win a Nobel Prize.

From childhood, Marie was remarkable for her prodigious memory, and at the age of 16 won a gold medal on completion of her secondary education because her father lost his savings through bad investment, she then had to take work as a teacher. From her earnings she was able to finance her sister Bronia’s medical studies in Paris, on the understanding that Bronia would in turn later help her to get an education.

In 1891 this promise was fulfilled and Marie went to Paris and began to study at the Sorbonne(the university of Paris) she often worked far into the night and lived on little more than bread and butter and tea. She came first in the examination in the physical science in 1893, and 1894 was placed second in the examination in mathematical science. It was not until the spring of that year that was introduced to Pierre curie.

Their marriage in 1895 marked the start of a partnership that was soon to achieve of world significance. Following Henry Becquerel’s discovery in 1896 of a new phenomenon, which Marie later called radioactivity’. Marie curie decided to find out if the radioactivity discovered in uranium was to found in other elements, she discovered that this was true for thorium.

Turning her attention to minerals, she found her interest drawn to pitchblende, a mineral whose radioactivity, superior to that of pure uranium, could be explained only by the presence in the ore of small quantities of an unknown substance of very high activity. Pierre curie joined her in the work that she had undertaken to resolve this problem, and that led to the discovery of the new elements, polonium and radium. While Pierre curie devoted him chiefly to the physical study of the new radiation, Marie curie struggled to obtain pure radium in the metallic state. This was achieved with the help of the chemist Andre-Louis Debierne, one of the Pierre curie’s pupils. Based on the results of this research, Marie curie received her doctorate of science, and in 1903 Marie and Pierre shared with Becquerel the Nobel Prize for physics for the discovery of radioactivity.

The births of Marie’s two daughters, Irene and Eve in 1897 and 1904 failed to interrupt her scientist work. She was appointed lecturer in physics at the Ecole Normale Superieure for girls in Sevres, France (1900) and introduced a method of teaching based on experimental demonstrations. In December 1904 she was appointed chief assistant in the laboratory directed by Pierre curie.

The sudden death of her husband in 1906 was a bitter blow to Marie curie, but was also a turning point in her carrier: henceforth she was to devote all her energy to completing alone the scientific work that they had undertaken. On may 13.1906, she was appointed to the professorship that had been left vacant on her husband’s death becoming the first women to teach at the Sorbonne. In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize for chemistry for the isolation of a pure form of radium.

During World War I, Marie curie with the help of her daughter Irene devoted herself to the development of the use of x-radiography, including the mobile units which came to be known as little curies used for the treatment of wounded soldier. In 1981 the radium institute whose staff Irene had joined, began to operate in earnest and became a centre for nuclear physics and chemistry. Marie curie now at the highest point of her fame and from 1922 a member of the academy of medicine, researched the chemistry of radioactive substance and their medical applications.

In 1921, accompanied by her two daughters, Marie Curie made a triumphant journey to the United States to raise funds for research on radium. Women there presented her with a gram of radium for her campaign. Marie also gave lectures in Belgium, Brazil, Spain, and Czechoslovakia and addition had the satisfaction of seeing the development of the curie foundation in Paris, and the inauguration in 1932 in Warsaw of the radium institute, where her sister Bronia became director.

One of Marie curie’s outstanding achievements was to have understood the need to accumulate intense radioactive sources, not only to treat illness but also to maintain an abundant supply for research. The existence in Paris at the radium institute of a stock of 1.5 grams of radium made a decisive contribution to the way for the discovery of the neutron by  sir James Chadwick and , above all for the discovery in 1934 by Irene and Frederic Joliot-curie of artificial radioactivity. A few months after this discovery, Marie curie died as a result of leukaemia caused by exposure to radiation. She had often carried test tubes containing radioactive isotopes in her pocket, remarking on the pretty blue-green light they gave off.

Her contribution to physics had been immense, not only in her own work, the importance of which had been demonstrated by her two Nobel prizes, but because of her influence on subsequent generations of nuclear physicists and chemists.

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B R A I N – scientist reveals how to think differently


 

In the last decade a revolution has occurred in the way that scientists think about the brain. We now know that the decisions humans make can be traced to the firing patterns of neurons in specific parts of the brain. These discoveries have led to the field known as neuroeconomics, which studies the brains secrets to success in an economic environment that demands innovation and being able to do things differently from competitors. A brain that can do this is an iconoclastic one. Briefly, an iconoclast is a person who does something that others say can’t be done.

This definition implies that iconoclasts are different from other people, but more precisely, it is their brains that are different in three distinct ways: perception, fear response, and social intelligence. Each of these tree functions utilizes a different circuit in the brain. Naysayers might suggest that the brain is irrelevant, that thinking in an original, even revolutionary, way is more a matter of personality than brain function. But the field of neuroeconomics was born out of the realization that the physical workings of the brain place limitations on the way we make decisions. By understanding these constraints, we begin to understand why some people march to a different drumbeat. The first thing to realize is that the brain suffers from limited resources. It has a fixed energy budget, about the same as a 40 watt light bulb, so it has evolved to work as efficiently as possible. This is where most people are impended from being an iconoclast. For example, when confronted with information streaming from the eyes, the brain will interpret this information in the quickest way possible. Thus it will draw on both past experience and any other source of information, such as what other people say, to make sense of what it is seeing. This happens all the time. The brain takes shortcuts that work so well we are hardly ever aware of them. We think our perceptions of the world are real, but they are only biological and electrical rumblings, perception is not simply a product of what your eyes or ears transmit to your brain. More than the physical reality of photons or sound waves, perception is a product of the brain.

Perception is central to iconoclasm. Iconoclasts see things differently to other people. Their brains do not fall into efficiency pitfalls as much as the average person’s brain. Iconoclasts, either because they were born that way or through learning, have found ways to work around the perceptual shortcuts that plague most people. Perception is not something that is hardwired into the brain. It is a learned process, which is both a curse and an opportunity for change. The brain faces the fundamental problem of interpreting physical stimuli from the senses. Everything the brain sees, hears, or touches has multiple interpretations. The one that is ultimately chosen is simply the brain’s best theory. In technical terms, these conjectures have their basis in the statistical likelihood of one interpretation over another and are heavily influenced by past experience and, importantly for potential iconoclasts, what other people say. The best way to see things differently to other people is to bombard the brain with things it has never encountered before. Novelty releases the perceptual process from the chain of the past experience and force the brain to make new judgements. Successful iconoclasts have an extra ordinary willingness to be exposed to what is fresh and different. Observation of iconoclasts shows that they embrace novelty while most people avoid things that are different.

The problem with novelty, however, is that it tends to trigger the brain’s fear system. Fear is a major impediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks. There are many types of fear, but the two that inhibit iconoclastic thinking and people generally find difficult to deal with are fear of uncertainty and fear of public ridicule. These may seem like trivial phobias. But fear of public speaking, which everyone must do from time to time, afflicts one-third of the population. This makes it too common to be considered a mental disorder. It is simply a common variant of human nature, one which iconoclasts do not let inhibit their reactions. Finally, to be successful iconoclasts, individuals must sell their ideas to other people. This is where social intelligence is the ability to understand and manage people in a business setting. In the last decade there has been an explosion of knowledge about the social brain and how the brain works when groups coordinate decision making. Neuroscience has revealed which brain circuits are responsible for functions like understanding what other people think, empathy, fairness, and social identity. These brain regions play key roles in whether people convince others of their ideas. Perception is important in social cognition too. The perception of someone’s enthusiasm, or reputation, can make or break a deal. Understanding how perception becomes intertwined with social decision making shows why successful iconoclasts are so rare.

Iconoclast create new opportunities in every area from artistic expression to technology to business. They supply creativity and innovation not easily accomplished by committees. Rules aren’t important to them. Iconoclasts face alienation and failure, but can also be a major asset to any organization. It is crucial for success in any field to understand how the iconoclastic mind works.

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UFO – The search for extra-terrestrial Intelligence


 

The question of whether we are alone in the universe has haunted humanity for centuries, but we may now stand poised on the brick of the answer to that question, as we search for radio signals from other intelligent civilisations. This search, often known by the acronym SETI (search for extra terrestrial intelligence), is a difficult one. Although groups around the world have been searching intermittently for three decades, it is only now that we have reached the level of technology where we can make a determined attempt to search all nearby stars for any sign of life.

The primary reason for the search is basic curiosity – the same curiosity about the natural world that derives all pure science. We want to know whether we are alone in the Universe. We want to know whether life evolves naturally if given the right conditions, or whether there is something very special about the Earth to have fostered the variety of life forms that we see around us on the planet. The simple detection of a radio signal will be sufficient to answer this most basic of all questions. In this sense, SETI is another cog in the machinery of pure science which is continually pushing out the horizon of our knowledge. However, there are other reasons for being interested in whether life exists elsewhere. For example, we have had civilisation on earth for perhaps only a few thousand years, and the threats of nuclear war and pollution over the last few decades have told us that our survival may be tenuous. Will we last another two thousand years or will we wipe ourselves out ? since the lifetime of a planet like ours is several billion years, we can expect that, if other civilizations do survive in our galaxy, their ages will range from zero to several billion years. This any other civilization that we hear from is likely to be far older, on average than ourselves. The mere existence of such a civilization will tell us that long term survival is possible and gives us some cause for optimism. It is even possible that the older civilization may pass on the benefits of their experience in dealing with threats to survival such as nuclear war and global pollution and other threats that we have not yet discovered.

 In discussing whether we are alone, most SETI scientists adopt two ground rules. First, UFO’s (unidentified flying objects) are generally ignored since most scientists don’t consider the evidence for them to be strong enough to bear serious consideration (although it is also important to keep an open mind in case any really convincing evidence emerges in the future). Second, we make a very conservative assumption that we are looking for a life form that is pretty well like us. Since if it differs radically from us we may well not recognise it as a life form, quite apart from whether we are able to communicate with it. In other words, the life form we are looking for may well have two green heads and seven fingers, but it will nevertheless resemble us in that it should communicate with its fellows, be interested in the universe, live on a planet orbiting a star like our Sun, and perhaps most restrictively, have a chemistry, like us, based on carbon and water.

Even when we make these assumptions, our understanding of other life forms is still severely limited. We do not, even know, for example, how many stars have planets, and we certainly do not know how likely it is that life will arise naturally, given the right conditions. However, whenever we look at the 100 billion stars in our galaxy (the milky way), and 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe, it seems inconceivable that at least one of these planets does not have a life form on it; in fact, the best educated guess we can make, using the little that we know about the conditions for carbon-based life, leads us to estimate that perhaps one in 10000 stars might have a life-bearing planet orbiting. That means our nearest neighbours are perhaps 100 light years away, which is almost next door in astronomical terms.

 An alien civilisation could choose many different ways of sending information across the galaxy, but many of these either require too much energy, or lease are severely attenuated while travelling the vast distances across the galaxy, it turns out that, for a given amount of transmitted distance, radio waves in the frequency range 1000 to 3000 MHz travel the greatest distance and so all searches to date have been concentrated on looking for radio waves in this frequency range. So far there have been a number of searches by various groups around the world, including Australian searches using the radio telescope at Parkes, New South Wales. Until now there has not been any detection from the few hundred stars which have been searched. The scale of the searches has been increased dramatically since 1992, when the US Congress voted NASA $10 million per year for ten years to conduct a thorough search for extra-terrestrial life. Much of the money in this project is being spent on developing the special hardware needed to search many frequencies at once. This project has two parts. One part is targeted search using the world’s largest radio telescopes, the American-operated telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico and the French telescope in Nancy in France. This part of the project is searching the nearest 1000 likely stars with high sensitivity for signals in the frequency range 1000 to 3000 MHz . The other part of the project is an undirected search which is monitoring all of space with a lower sensitivity, using the smaller antennas of NASA’s Deep Space Network.

 There is considerable debate over how we should react, if we detect a signal from an alien civilisation. Everybody agrees that we should not reply immediately. Quite apart from the impracticality of sending a reply over such large distances at short notice, it raises a host of ethical questions that would have to be addressed by the global community before any reply could be sent. Would the human race face the culture shock if faced with a superior and much older civilisation? Luckily, there is no urgency about this. The stars being searched are hundreds of light years away, so it takes hundreds of years for their signal to reach us, and a further few hundred years for our reply to reach them. It is not important then, if there’s a delay of a few years, or decades, while the human race debates the question of whether to reply, and perhaps carefully drafts a reply.

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WWW – What we want?


 Rex’s story is a reminder to keep searching until you find what you are looking for. Rex found his paradise in the most unlikely to places. Greece has a reputation for attracting hoards of package-holiday goers. It is a place where beaches are overflowing with deckchairs and sunbeds and the stench of commercialism from June to September each year. But, as Rex found out, for the rest of the year it transforms into something magical, or, at least, a small part of it; a quiet peaceful, little gem of an island on the shores of the Ionian Sea, does. Keep searching!

 

These days, it has almost become cliche; the notion of travelling on a shoestring is far too common for the liking of the free spirited hippie-types who started the craze off. And, besides, with the cost of travel having plummeted in recent years, it is no longer entails enduring the kinds of hardships experienced by the budget travelers of the yesteryear. And, in some ways, this has taken the enjoyment out of the experience of ‘roughing it” as you travel around the world in search of new and unique experiences. Why? Because there aren’t those many new and unique experiences left. Once everyone started doing it, this whole globe-trotting idea started to look a lot less attractive. It was supposed to be for a select few adventures daring enough to take the dusty roads less trodden. But those roads are now crowded highways of overexcited youths trying desperately to make their holiday adventures special. There is something very artificial about the whole experience. Part of the reason people used to go backpacking to the ends of the earth was to, well, escape the maddening crowd, not join it. Is there nowhere that is safe anymore? Is there no escape from the masses?

 Rex, 25, from Kensington, dropped out of Engineering in his second year at Oxford to travel the world. An idealist and romantic, Rex had become disillusioned with life in the big smoke, having lived in London for most of his 25 years, and decided it was time to branch out. His parents were understandably distraught to learn of his decision to quit university, but they gave him their full support once it was clear this was the only thing that would make him happy. So Rex started down the by now well-documented road to Asia and the Far East. At first brimming with enthusiasm, his passion for the journey soon dried up when Rex realised things were not exactly as he had imagined they would be. No matter where he went, a dedicated army of foreigners like himself would follow; there was no escaping them, and so, Rex left, the experience of local culture was very artificial; almost deliberately extreme to impress the eager eyes of his mainly American travel buddies.

  Having almost given up on ever finding the authentic experience, Rex prepared to come home. You can hear it from the horse’s mouth from here: ‘I got this deal with a stopover in Greece on route back to London, so I figured I might as well spend a few days there if for no other reason than to avoid having to face the music from my parents when I arrived home. I’d heard the lonian islands were nice, but horribly overcrowded. Still I thought: ‘what’s the point fighting it? Everywhere’s crowded.’So, a couple of days later, I found myself in Corfu on a beautiful spring day in March. It was 25 degrees outside; the sky was clear and the sea a picture-postcard turquoise. Surprisingly, there weren’t that many tourists on the island either. Suddenly my spirits got high. That first evening, I dined in the old town on some exquisite local fare at a small, family-owned taverna where the owner – a chubby, middle-aged man of very good nature – proceeded to introduce me (his only customer) to the rest of his family one-by-one, then sat down and chatted by my side in his broken English for the rest of the night.’

‘I told him where I was going next and the man’s eyes beamed. Kefalonia, he explained, was where he had grown up. Indeed, his village was only a mile or two from the hostel where I would be staying. It was settled then; I would stay with his brother Nikos, who would give me a ‘royal’ tour of the island, instead. Nikos, it turned out, was every bit as helpful as his older brother, and, somehow, by accident, I found myself spending the next two months in the company of his family as they showed me from one part of Kelafornia to the next, exploring land and sea, caves and rivers, waterfalls and lakes, forests and mountains. This was real; Nikos was real; his wife and children were real; their hospitality was real and Kefalonia was real. The turtles I swam with were real; It was just me and Nikos’ daughter Eliza who’d chanced upon them by accident in the fishing boat. There were no crowds to spoil this moment; everything was real. One evening, as I sat looking out onto the sunset, totally relaxed and at home on my little island paradise, a bus came bumping up the uneven road that lead to the beach; Then, within minutes, there were 20 or 30 bodies on my beach; throwing balls, kicking sand, drinking beer, lighting fires …’Summer has arrived’, I thought. And with it, I made a hasty retreat back of London. It occurred to me then, that, even in the most commercialised of tourist destinations like the Greek Islands, if you know what to look for, where to look and, more importantly, when, you can still find paradise, if only for a few moments.’

 

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S C L – STOP CHILD LABOUR


I know by posting this it will not help. I cannot help these children’s, i cannot stop them. I cannot stop even those whose hiring them to work, i cannot stop whose are working around my surrounding. I am shamed. Shamed because i was a part of those people who taken help from these child for the fulfillment of my work, which shouldn’t be. I am shamed today, because i saw a lot of child labor working everywhere but i ignored it. Now, I want to come out of it now, DO YOU WANT?  i know i cannot help these children’s by providing money and food, but i am awaken. ARE YOU AWAKEN? By sharing this with you is the only meaning that am against it, ARE YOU AGAINST CHILD LABOR? We know that this is the only help we can give them, help of  SHARING, and i know one thing that, help can be given in any term. So, stop ignoring child labor and by sharing WITH YOUR SOCIAL FRIENDS. this give your inner soul a sign of relief that you are awaken. You shared a lot of posts, images, jokes & spiritual things, but i can bet you that by sharing this it will give you a hidden relief that you made your day by helping stop child labor.

Say-No-To-Child-Labour

 

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Bhagwat Geeta – Chapter 6 – THE YOGA OF MEDITATION


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Summary of Sixth Discourse
Sri Krishna emphasises once again that the Yogi or Sannyasin is one who has renounced the fruits of actions, not the actions themselves. The performance of actions without an eye on their fruits brings about the purification of the mind. Only a purified mind, a mind free from desires, can engage itself in constant meditation on the Atman. Desire gives rise to imagination or Sankalpa, which drives the soul into the field of action. Therefore, none can realise permanent freedom and tranquillity of mind without renouncing desires. The lower self must be controlled by the higher Self. All the lower impulses of the body, mind and senses must be controlled by the power of the higher Self. Then the higher Self becomes one’s friend. He who has perfect control of the body, mind and senses and is united with God, sees God in all objects and beings. He sees inwardly that there is no difference between gold and stone,
between friends and enemies, between the righteous and the unrighteous. He is perfectly harmonised. Sri Krishna proceeds to give various practical hints as to the practice of meditation. The aspirant should select a secluded spot where there is no likelihood of disturbance. He should arrange his meditation seat properly and sit in a comfortable posture, with the head, neck and spine erect but not tensed. He should fix his purified mind on the Atman by concentrating between the eyebrows or on the tip of the nose. The practice of Brahmacharya is absolutely necessary if one is to succeed in meditation. The conservation and transformation of the vital fluid into spiritual energy gives immense power of concentration. Fearlessness, too, is an essential quality on the Godward path. It is faith in the sustaining protection and Grace of God. The aspirant is advised to practise moderation in his daily habits—in eating, sleeping, recreation, etc. Extremes are to be avoided as they hinder the practice of meditation. Living a life of such moderation, and gathering up all his forces and directing them towards meditation upon the Atman, the aspirant gradually transcends the senses and intellect and merges himself in the blissful Atman. He finds that the bliss of the Atman is incomparable, that there is no gain greater than the Self. Having thus attained perfect union with the Self, the Yogi no more descends into ignorance or delusion. He does not relish any more the pleasures of the senses. Lord Krishna again emphasises that the concentration of the mind on the Atman should be like a steady flame in a windless place. This ultimately leads to the vision of the Lord in all beings and creatures. Arjuna is doubtful whether it is at all possible to engage the mind steadily on the higher Self, as its very nature seems to be one of restlessness. Krishna assures him that the practice can succeed through Vairagya (dispassion) and constant effort. Arjuna wishes to know the fate of the aspirant who fails to realise the Supreme in spite of his faith and sincerity. Krishna tells him that the accumulated power of his Yogic practices will assure him a better birth in the future, with more favourable conditions for Sadhana. The aspirant will then be compelled to carry on his Yogic practices with greater vigour and faith and will finally achieve God-realisation. Krishna concludes that the Yogi—one who has attained union with the Supreme Lord—is superior to the ascetics, to the men of book knowledge and the men of action, as the latter have not transcended ignorance and merged in the Self.
The Blessed Lord said:

He who performs his bounden duty without depending on the fruits of his actions—he is a Sannyasin and a Yogi, not he who is without fire and without action. Do thou, O Arjuna, know Yoga to be that which they call renunciation; no one verily becomes a Yogi who has not renounced thoughts!
COMMENTARY:
Lord Krishnaeulogises Karma Yoga here because it is a means or a stepping stone to the Yoga of meditation. In order to encourage the practice of Karma Yoga it is stated here that it isSannyasa. For a sage who wishes toattain to Yoga, action is said to be the means; for the same sage who has attained to Yoga, inaction (quiescence) is said to be the means. When a man is not attached to the sense-objects or to actions, having renounced all thoughts, then he is said to have attained to Yoga. Let a man lift himself by his own Self alone; let him not lower himself, for this self alone is the friend of oneself and this self alone is the enemy of oneself. The self is the friend of the self for him who has conquered himself by the Self, but to the unconquered self, this self stands in the position of an enemy like the (external) foe. The Supreme Self of him who is self-controlled and peaceful is balanced in cold and heat, pleasure and pain, as also in honour and dishonour. The Yogi who is satisfied with the knowledge and the wisdom (of the Self), who has conquered the senses, and to whom a clod of earth, a piece of stone and gold are the same, is said to be harmonised (that is, is said to have attained the state ofNirvikalpa Samadhi). He who is of the same mind to the good-hearted, friends, enemies, the indifferent, the

neutral, the hateful, the relatives, the righteous and the unrighteous, excels. Let the Yogi try constantly to keep the mind steady, remaining in solitude, alone, with the mind and the body controlled, and free from hope and greed. In a clean spot, having established a firm seat of his own, neither too high nor too low, made of a cloth, a skin and kusha grass, one over the other, There, having made the mind one-pointed, with the actions of the mind and the senses controlled, let him, seated on the seat, practise Yoga for the purification of the self. Let him firmly hold his body, head and neck erect and perfectly still, gazing at the tip of
his nose, without looking around. Serene-minded, fearless, firm in the vow of a Brahmachari, having controlled the mind, thinking of Me and balanced in mind, let him sit, having Me as his supreme goal. Thus, always keeping the mind balanced, the Yogi, with the mind controlled, attains to the peace abiding in Me, which culminates in liberation. Naatyashnatastu yogo’sti nachaikaantamanashnatah;
Na chaatiswapnasheelasya jaagrato naiva chaarjuna. Verily Yoga is not possible for him who eats too much, nor for him who does not eat at all; nor for him who sleeps too much, nor for him who is (always) awake, O Arjuna! Yoga becomes the destroyer of pain for him who is always moderate in eating and recreation (such as walking, etc.), who is moderate in exertion in actions, who is moderate in sleep and wakefulness. When the perfectly controlled mind rests in the Self only, free from longing for the objects of desire, then it is said: “He is united.”
COMMENTARY:
Without union with the Self neither harmony nor balance nor Samadhi is possible. As a lamp placed in a windless spot does not flicker—to such is compared the Yogi of controlled mind, practising Yoga in the Self (or absorbed in the Yoga of the Self).
COMMENTARY:
This is a beautiful simile which Yogis often quote when they talk of concentration or one-pointedness of mind. When the mind, restrained by the practice of Yoga, attains to quietude, and when, seeing the Self by the Self, he is satisfied in his own Self, When he (the Yogi) feels that infinite bliss which can be grasped by the (pure) intellect and which transcends the senses, and, established wherein he never moves from the Reality, Which, having obtained, he thinks there is no other gain superior to it; wherein established, he is not moved even by heavy sorrow,— Let that be known by the name of Yoga, the severance from union with pain. This Yoga

should be practised with determination and with an undesponding mind. Abandoning without reserve all the desires born of Sankalpa, and completely restraining the whole group of senses by the mind from all sides,
COMMENTARY:
The mind is so diplomatic that it keeps certain desires for its secret gratification. So one should completely abandon all desires without reservation. Little by little let him attain to quietude by the intellect held firmly; having made the mind establish itself in the Self, let him not think of anything. From whatever cause the restless, unsteady mind wanders away, from that let him restrain it and bring it under the control of the Self alone. Supreme bliss verily comes to this Yogi whose mind is quite peaceful, whose passion is
quieted, who has become Brahman, and who is free from sin. The Yogi, always engaging the mind thus (in the practice of Yoga), freed from sins, easily enjoys the infinite bliss of contact with Brahman (the Eternal). With the mind harmonised by Yoga he sees the Self abiding in all beings and all beings in the Self; he sees the same everywhere. He who sees Me everywhere and sees everything in Me, he does not become separated from Me nor do I become separated from him.
COMMENTARY:
The Lord describes here the effect of oneness. He who, being established in unity, worships Me who dwells in all beings,—that Yogi
abides in Me, whatever may be his mode of living. He who, through the likeness of the Self, O Arjuna, sees equality everywhere, be it
pleasure or pain, he is regarded as the highest Yogi!

Arjuna said:

This Yoga of equanimity taught by Thee, O Krishna, I do not see its steady continuance, because of restlessness (of the mind)! The mind verily is restless, turbulent, strong and unyielding, O Krishna! I deem it as difficult to control as to control the wind.
COMMENTARY:
The mind ever changes its point of concentration from one object to another. So it is always restless. It is not only restless but also turbulent and impetuous, strong and obstinate. It produces agitation in the body and in the senses. That is why the mind is even more
difficult to control than to control the wind.
The Blessed Lord said:
Undoubtedly, O mighty-armed Arjuna, the mind is difficult to control and restless; but, by practice and by dispassion it may be restrained! I think that Yoga is hard to be attained by one of uncontrolled self, but the self~controlled and striving one attains to it by the (proper) means.
Arjuna said:

He who is unable to control himself though he has the faith, and whose mind wanders away from Yoga, what end does he meet, having failed to attain perfection in Yoga, O Krishna? Fallen from both, does he not perish like a rent cloud, supportless, O mighty-armed
(Krishna), deluded on the path of Brahman? This doubt of mine, O Krishna, do Thou completely dispel, because it is not possible for
any but Thee to dispel this doubt.
COMMENTARY:
There is no better teacher than the Lord Himself as He is omniscient.
The Blessed Lord said:
O Arjuna, neither in this world, nor in the next world is there destruction for him; none, verily, who does good, O My son, ever comes to grief! Having attained to the worlds of the righteous and, having dwelt there for everlasting years, he who fell from Yoga is reborn in the house of the pure and wealthy. Or he is born in a family of even the wise Yogis; verily a birth like this is very difficult to obtain in this world. There he comes in touch with the knowledge acquired in his former body and strives more than before for perfection, O Arjuna! By that very former practice he is borne on in spite of himself. Even he who merely wishes to know Yoga transcends the Brahmic word.
COMMENTARY:
One who had fallen from Yoga is carried to the goal (which he intended to reach in his previous birth), by the force of the impressions of his past Yogic practices, though he may be unconscious of it and may not be willing to adopt the course of Yogic discipline due to the force of some evil Karma. But, the Yogi who strives with assiduity, purified of sins and perfected gradually through many births, reaches the highest goal. The Yogi is thought to be superior to the ascetics and even superior to men of knowledge (obtained through the study of scriptures); he is also superior to men of action; therefore, be thou a Yogi, O Arjuna! And among all the Yogis, he who, full of faith and with his inner self merged in Me, worships Me, he is deemed by Me to be the most devout.
Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita, the science of the Eternal, the scripture of Yoga, the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna, ends the sixth discourse entitled:
“The Yoga of Meditation”
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BHAGWAT GEETA – Brief


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Dhritarashtra and Pandu were brothers. Dhritarashtra married Gandhari, and Pandu was
married to Kunti and Madri. King Pandu was cursed for a sin while hunting, due to which he was
not permitted to unite with his wife. Kunti got a boon through her sincere service of a wise sage in
her younger age, and she begot three children, namely, Yudhisthira, Bhima and Arjuna from Yama,
Vayu and Indra respectively. Madri had twins, Nakula and Sahadeva, through the celestial
physicians called Asvini-Devatas. Dhritarashtra had a hundred and one children by his wife
Gandhari. Pandu passed away and his sons, the Pandavas, were all brought up by Dhritarashtra
along with his sons known as Kauravas. The Pandavas and Kauravas grew up together, but due to
the braveness and intelligence of the former, the Kauravas were unable to tolerate them. Hence the
Pandavas decided to live separately, sharing half of their kingdom.
The Pandavas’ pomp, wealth and glory displayed during the Rajasuya Yajna aroused deep
jealousy and greed in the mind of Duryodhana, the chief of the Kauravas, who, with the cunning
advice of his uncle, Sakuni, invited Yudhisthira to a game of dice and fraudulently defeated him,
whereby all his wealth and possessions, including Draupadi, were lost. Finally it was settled that the
Pandavas, including Draupadi, should repair to the forest for twelve years in exile, after which they
had to live incognito for another year, untraced by the Kauravas. During this period the kingdom
was to be ruled by the wicked Duryodhana.
Having successfully completed these thirteen years of exile, facing many obstacles and
dangers instigated by the Kauravas, the Pandavas, as per the terms of the agreement, approached the
Kauravas for their share of the kingdom. Duryodhana, however, flatly refused to part with as much
land as could be covered by the point of a needle. According to the advice of Mother Kunti and with
the inspiration of Lord Krishna, the Pandavas decided upon war and tried to establish their rightful
claim on the kingdom by overcoming the Kauravas.
Duryodhana and Arjuna, from the side of the Kauravas and Pandavas respectively, were
sent to Dwaraka to seek the help of the Yadava hero, Lord Krishna, in the battle. They both found
Krishna resting on a couch in His palace. Duryodhana went in and occupied a seat at the head of the
couch while Arjuna stood near the feet of the Lord. The moment Sri Krishna opened His eyes, He
naturally saw Arjuna first, and then Duryodhana sitting on a chair. After enquiry of their welfare
and the purpose of their visit, Sri Krishna, according to the prevailing custom, gave the first choice
to Arjuna, because of his age, and also because of His sight of Arjuna first. Krishna asked Arjuna to
fulfil his desire by selecting Him unarmed or His powerful army called Narayani Sena. Arjuna, who
was a devotee of Sri Krishna, expressed his desire to have the Lord with him, neglecting the
powerful Narayani Sena, even though Krishna warned that He would remain a witness, bound by
the vow of not participating in battle and not taking up arms. Duryodhana, with great delight,
thinking that Arjuna was foolish, expressed his wish for the powerful army to help his side in the
battle.
When Krishna asked Arjuna why he chose Him when He was not for taking up arms, Arjuna
said, “O Lord! You have the power to destroy all the forces by a mere sight. Why then should I
prefer that worthless army? I have for a long time been cherishing a desire in my heart that you
should act as my charioteer. Kindly fulfil my desire in this war.”
The Lord, who is ever the most devoted lover of His devotees, accepted his request with
pleasure; and thus Krishna became the charioteer of Arjuna in the battle of the Mahabharata.
After the return of Duryodhana and Arjuna from Dwaraka, Lord Krishna Himself went once
to Hastinapura as the emissary of the Pandavas and tried to prevent the war. But then, under the
guidance of Sakuni, the egoistic Duryodhana refused to agree to the peace mission and tried to
imprison Lord Krishna, at which Krishna showed His Supreme Form (Viswarupa). Even the blind
Dhritarashtra saw it by the Lord’s Grace. King Dhritarashtra, due to his attachment to his sons,
failed to control them, and the Kaurava chief, Duryodhana, with vain hope, decided to meet the
powerful Pandavas in war.
When both sides were prepared to commence the battle, the sage Veda Vyasa approached
blind Dhritarashtra and said, “If you wish to see this terrible carnage with your own eyes I can give
you the gift of vision.” The Kaurava king replied, “O Chief of the Brahmarishis! I have no desire to
see with my own eyes this slaughter of my family, but I should like to hear all the details of the
battle.”
Then the sage conferred the gift of divine vision on Sanjaya, the trusty counsellor of the
king, and told the king, “Sanjaya will describe to you all the incidents of the war. Whatever happens
in the course of the war, he will directly see, hear or otherwise come to know. Whether an incident
takes place before his eyes or behind his back, during the day or during the night, privately or in
public, and whether it is reduced to actual action or appears only in thought, it will not remain
hidden from his view. He will come to know everything, exactly as it happens. No weapon will
touch his body nor will he feel tired.”
After the ten days of continued war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas, when the great
warrior Bhishma was thrown down from his chariot by Arjuna, Sanjaya announces the news to
Dhritarashtra. In agony the king asks Sanjaya to narrate the full details of the previous ten days war,
from the very beginning, in all detail as it happened. Here commences the Bhagavad Gita.
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Introduction – BHAGWAT GEETA


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The modern man in this present decade of the second half of the 20th century is greatly in need of an effective guide to light. He is groping. He sees only problems everywhere and no solutions are to be found anywhere. He does not know which way to turn, what course to adopt and how to move towards a better state of things. Therefore, his life is filled with restlessness, unhappiness and complication. The Bhagavad Gita contains words of wisdom and practical teachings that contain the answers to the above-mentioned condition of the present-day individual. The Bhagavad Gita is a message addressed to each and every human individual to help him
or her to solve the vexing problem of overcoming the present and progressing towards a bright future. This holy scripture is not just an “old scripture”, nor is it just a book of “religious teachings”, nor even a Hindu holy book. It transcends the bounds of any particular religion or race, and is actually divine wisdom addressed to mankind for all times, in order to help human beings face and
solve the ever-present problems of birth and death, of pain, suffering, fear, bondage, love and hate. It enables man to liberate himself from all limiting factors and reach a state of perfect balance, innerstability and mental peace, complete freedom from grief, fear and anxiety. Within its eighteen chapters is revealed a human drama. This is the experience of everyone in this world, the drama of
the ascent of man from a state of utter dejection, sorrow and total breakdown and hopelessness to a state of perfect understanding, clarity, renewed strength and triumph. Each discourse holds for you an invaluable new lesson and imparts a new understanding of
yourself in a marvellous way. The mystery of man, this world and God, is explained as perhaps nowhere else. The workings of your mind—the real problem to your welfare and happiness—how to overcome it, what the path to blessedness is, as also the path to perdition, the secret of self-mastery and the way to peace amidst your daily activities and duties—all these and more you
will find in this great treasure. It is yours by which to enrich your life. To the Western reader I would suggest that he carefully reads through the entire book once. Then he should commence it a second time. Upon the second reading he should adopt the method of
selectivity, not in reading but in what he takes from it. Such things as seem to be particularly Hindu and therefore, perhaps, not acceptable to him as a person of another faith, he can just pass by without being perturbed. But everything else that is of a purely philosophical, psychological, ethical and psychical nature,—all these he can grasp and assimilate fully. He will be wonderfully
enriched and supremely blessed. His life will become new from that moment. All clouds will vanish. Light will fill the heart and mind. I assure him of this. This is the Gita. I commend this wonderful gift of God unto every man and woman, towards his or her
supreme blessedness and highest welfare.

Swami Chidananda
10th July, 1968 (Guru Purnima)

During the centuries in which Buddhism was establishing itself in the east of India, the older Brahmanism in the west was undergoing the changes which resulted in the Hinduism which is now the prevailing religion of India. The main ancient sources of information with regard to these Hindu beliefs and practises are the two great epics, the “Ramayana” and the Maha Mahabharata. The former is a highly artificial production based on legend and ascribed to one man, Valmiki. The latter, a “huge conglomeration of stirring adventure, legend, myth, history, and superstition,” is a composite production, begun probably as early as the fourth or fifth century before Christ, and completed by the end of the sixth century of our era. It represents many strata of religious belief.

The Bhagavad-Gita,” of which a translation is here given, occurs as an episode in the Maha-Bharata, and is regarded as one of the gems of Hindu literature. The poem is a dialogue between Prince Arjuna, the brother of King Yudhisthira, and Vishnu, the Supreme God, incarnated as Krishna, and wearing the disguise of a charioteer. The conversation takes place in a war-chariot, stationed between the armies of the Kauravas and Pandavas, who are about to engage in battle.

To the Western reader much of the discussion seems childish and illogical; but these elements are mingled with passages of undeniable sublimity. Many of the more puzzling inconsistencies are due to interpolations by later re-writers. “It is,” says Hopkins, “a medley of beliefs as to the relation of spirit and matter, and other secondary matters; it is uncertain in its tone in regard to the comparative efficacy of action and inaction, and in regard to the practical man’s means of salvation; but it is at one with itself in its fundamental thesis, that all things are each a part of one Lord, that men and gods are but manifestations of the One Divine Spirit.”

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Facts About SUN


 The Sun is a star like all other stars, just one that is much, much closer to Earth. It alone has more than 99.8 percent of the mass of the entire solar system. Its mass is 1,000 times that of Jupiter, the largest planet. All the other planets and smaller bodies that orbit the sun amount to nothing more than bread crumbs by comparison.

The Sun and the rest of the solar system formed about 4.5 billion years ago from a cloud of collapsing hydrogen gas. When the hydrogen became dense and hot enough, the process of fusion — combining hydrogen into helium and releasing light and energy — began, and will continue for several billion years until the hydrogen is exhausted.

 

So, Lets read the most interesting facts about sun with images…

 

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TOP REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD VISIT INDIA


India is an amazingly huge country with a variety of climatic conditions combined with diverse flora and fauna. Otherwise known as the cradle of the Indus civilization, India is known for its cultural wealth and heritage running back into the prehistorically times.

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Taking a holiday in India will definitely be enriching and a memorable experience to those of you who are looking forward to spend some holiday or leisure time. This article highlights the six best reasons why visiting India is worth your time and money.

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The first reason for visiting India should be to see The Taj Mahal. This is a white marble structure and world Heritage wonder that was voted as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The Taj Mahal was build by Mughal Emperor Shah Jehan as a present for his wife Mumtaj Mahal. The structure draws millions of tourist from across the world.

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Secondly, India is a rich country when it comes to spirituality. It’s in here that renown saints including Guru Nanak Dev, In Amritsar it’s Golden Temple is the largest visited spiritual place by foreigners and domestic visitors. This is a country in which Hinduism is a way of life rather than just a religion,  Buddha and Mahavira emerged and started the spread of spirituality.

There are many such holy and spiritual cities in India that will definitely enrich your spiritual insight. A good example is Varanasi cities which are cities located at the gates of the Holy Ganges. There are also holy rivers like the spiritual Sarawati River believed to be a source of salvation.

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The third reason why India should be your next destination is the experience of Yoga. Yoga is known to originate from India. The rich experience in Yoga has attracted even celebrities around the world like Donovan in their search for spiritual satisfaction. Yoga is a physical and mental therapy by transforming the body and mind into a state self-balance.

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The fourth reason is that a visit to India will enable you visit Rajasthan, which is known as the land of the fearless and brave Rajput princes. The dazzling views of Rajasthan include Jaipur, otherwise known as the “Pinky City”, Udaipur also known as the “City of Lakes”, the Jaisalmer also called “Golden City” and the Jodhpur referred to as “Blue City”.

An exclusive train service will take you through these destinations and will definitely leave you with memorable sights and sounds of these places. At the end of the day, your recreation of the ancient many gone years are priceless.

The last top reason you have to visit India is to have a close up contact with its Wildlife; India has diverse ecology inhabiting various animals and plants. Efforts have been successfully made to preserve the diversity of the animals and plants to ensure their continued survival. In addition, India has an amazing way of integrating the wildlife into human life without crisis.

For example, elephants are used for transport purposes even in cities like Mumbai and New Delhi, a site that you can’t see anywhere around the world. The abundant sanctuaries are rated to be among the best in the world.

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Password Power…For Kids


BEST WAY TO PROTECT CHILD IF SOMEBODY TRIES TO APPROACH THEM…
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Sun Salutation (NAMASAKAAR)


 

Sun Salutation (NAMASAKAAR).

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Sun Salutation (NAMASAKAAR)


sunsalutationfinal

As per the Hindu tradition, Sun is considered Holy and divineas it supports life on Earth. In the ancient times our ancestors used to start their day by greeting the Sun and welcoming the new day in their life. It is mainly involves a procedure of 12 postures which are repeated as per the person’s stamina. Performing regular Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation) in the morning can enhance a person’s physical health and overall well being. It corrects your posture, stretches muscles and lets you inhale the freshness of the morning breeze.

Steps of Suryanamaskar

Surya Namaskara Step 1: Stand straight facing the sun while balancing your weight equally on both feet which are joined together. While breathing in, fold your hands in prayer.

About of suryanamaskar step 1

Surya Namaskara Step 2. Feel the warmth of the sun while chanting ‘Om Suryadevaya Namah’ thrice. While breathing in, take your folded hands up towards thesky. Bend backwards and make an arch from your hands to feet. Pushing the pelvic a little forward reach out to the sky with the tips of your fingers rather than bending.

About of suryanamaskar step 2

Surya Namaskara Step 3. While breathing out, slowly bring your hands down and bend simultaneously bend to touch the either side of your feet. Make sure that you do not bend your knees and keep your head as close to them as possible.

About of suryanamaskar step 3

Surya Namaskara Step 4. While breathing in push your right leg back as far as possible and look up.

About of suryanamaskar step 4

Surya Namaskara Step 5. While breathing in take the leg back parallel to the right one and bring your body to a straight line.

About of suryanamaskar step 5

Surya Namaskara Step 6. While breathing out, bring your knees to slightly touch theground and raise your hips slightly while resting your chest and chin on the ground. While raising your posterior make sure that eight points of your body touch the ground (palms, feet, knees, chest and chin).

About of suryanamaskar step 6

Surya Namaskara Step 7. While sliding forward, inhale and look up (shoulders away from the ears).

About of suryanamaskar step 7

Surya Namaskara Step 8. Breath out and lift your hips as high as possible (if possible keep your heels touched to the ground)

About of suryanamaskar step 8

Surya Namaskara Step 9. While breathing in bring your left leg forward in between hands, ensuring that your right calf is perpendicular to the ground. Pushing your hips down look up to the sky.

About of suryanamaskar step 9

Surya Namaskara Step 10. Exhaling, bring your left foot forward beside the right one. While keeping your hands on the ground, slide up such that your nose touches your knees.

About of suryanamaskar step 10

Surya Namaskara Step 11. Inhaling roll your spine up, let your folded hands go up towards the sky and stretch backwards making an arch (stretch up rather than backwards).

About of suryanamaskar step 11

Surya Namaskara Step 12. While straightening your body exhale and bring your hands down. While relaxing observe and feel the sensations in your body.

About of suryanamaskar step 12

Bring these 12 postures of Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation) in your life and have ahealthy body and soothed mind.

Benefits of Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation)

    • Enhances blood circulation
    • Strengthens different muscles of the body
    • Improves digestion, burns extra fat and maintains weight
    • Enhances the concentration of mind

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These were the 12 signs of Surya Namaskara also known as Sun Salutation. In Yoga, Suryanamaskara has got a significant place for healing many ailments. As per Hindu Scriptures on Yoga, it is believed that one who performs Surya Namaskar on regular basis from childhood never gets prone to severe physical diseases. As it is amongst the easiest forms of Yoga, Suryanamaskar can be performed by almost everyone.

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Where soul goes after death?


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The distance between the earth and Yama’s world is 1,032,000 Kilometers (approximately 641,255 miles. (Distance between the earth and the moon is 384,000 KMs and the distance between the earth and the sun is 149,598,000 KMs).  Due to the effect of karma, a man falls sick causing his death.  The mode of one’s death also depends upon one’s karma. When a man is dead, his body should be kept on the ground after purificatory rituals discussed earlier.  Śālagrāma (sacred stone) should be placed near the body.  Tulasī leaves (basil) should be placed in both the hands of the body and also on its neck. Pieces of gold should also be kept in the nine apertures of the body.  The body should be covered with two sheets of clothing.  The body should be carried through the back door.  Sons and other relatives should carry the body on their shoulders. While placing the body on the pyre, head should be facing north.  His son should perform ceremonies facing the eastern side.
When the subtle body is leaving the gross body, which is known as death, the messengers of Yama arrive on the scene. When the subtle body finally comes out of the gross body, causing death of the gross body, the subtle body is still able to see the entire universe.  The departed soul could see the messengers of Yama and the attendants of Lord Viṣṇu. This means that the soul can  see both good and bad and the departed soul begins its journey according to its karma.  A subtle body which has a bad karmic account feels for its sins at this stage.
Subtle-body-after-death-v2A soul has to travel the entire distance to reach the world of Yama.  The path becomes rough for the sinners and the path becomes comfortable for virtuous. Lord begins to describe Yama.  He has four arms holding a conch, a discus, a bow and a staff.  He treats the virtuous with respect and sinners with rudeness. He hits the sinners with iron rod and club.  He sits on a buffalo (Yama is called mahiṣa vāhana; mahiṣa means buffalo and vāhana means vehicle).  His body appears dreadful to sinners and radiant to virtuous. The soul is in the size of one’s thumb (it means the subtle body. Soul and the subtle body always travel together.  The subtle body is pushed out of the gross body by air.  The subtle body cries out when it comes out of the gross body).
It is said that one should not boast of his body as it is liable to death and decay. The purpose of acquiring wealth is charity; purpose of speech is to say the truth; purpose of a body is spirituality. The subtle bodies of those who do not follow the virtuous path are tortured by the messengers of Yama on the way to Yama’s place.
The Lord proceeds to explain the purpose of six piṇḍa-s. The first one is offered at the doorway where the departed soul is called as pāntha (pāntha means wandering).  The piṇḍa offered here satisfies those deities that dwell at the entrance door.  (It is believed that some deities reside at the main entrance door of a house.  It is always ideal to offer incense sticks at the entrance door.  A conch with anti clock wise lines tied on a yellow cloth above the main door frame is said to ward off evil spirits entering through the main door). In the courtyard of the building lives Khecara, a gandharva.  Third piṇḍa should be offered to Bhūta at the resting place.  Bhūta is considered as one of the demigods. Fourth piṇḍa is offered to piśāca-s (piśāca is said to be a flesh eating demon), rākṣasa-s (rākṣasa means an evil demon) and yakṣa-s (yakṣa means a supernatural being and said to be the attendants of Kubera). These three said to preserve the sanctity of the dead body till it is completely burnt. The fifth piṇḍa is offered at the side of the pyre where the dead body is placed. The dead body is now known as preta.  Because of these five piṇḍa-s, the preta attains purity to be placed on the fire.  Fire is considered as very sacred.  Vedas worship Agni (fire) more than any other gods.  By satisfying the above referred non-human characters, preta attains purity to offer it to the fire.
The funeral pyre should be lit from the eastern side.  Once the body is completely burnt, the remains of the bones are collected and during this time the sixth piṇḍa is offered.  The ashes are then immersed in sea or river.  At the southern part of the house, a pit is made and for the next ten days, piṇḍa-s are offered here daily, along with milk and water. There is no specific mantra or any specific rites while offering these piṇḍa-s.  The piṇḍa offered during the ten day period is divided into four parts.  Two parts build up a new body for the dead.  The third part goes to Yama’s servants and the fourth is consumed by the preta.  The subtle body gets a proper shape in three days and three nights and on the tenth day, the subtle body develops hunger.  Irrespective of other offerings made to the preta (the subtle body of the dead is always called preta), it gets satisfied only by offering flesh (normally, a piece of banana is offered instead of flesh).  During eleventh day and twelfth day ceremonies, the preta eats as much as possible.  On the thirteenth day, the soul’s journey begins to the world of Yama dragged by the servants of Yama.  During it journey, the soul regrets for every evil action it had done during the past birth.

Further reading:  Soul is nothing but the Brahman Himself.  Sins committed by a person do not affect the Soul within.  The suffering is only to the gross body when life exists in a body and to the subtle body, when the subtle body leaves the gross body at the time of death.  Depending upon one’s karma, the subtle body also undergoes sufferings and pains or happiness and pleasures.  One’s karmic account is embedded in his subtle body.  Apart from karmic embedment, subtle body also has the impressions of his subconscious mind.  Karma affects, both the subtle body and the gross body independently.  Subtle body undergoes pains or pleasures in the hell or heaven as the case may be and the gross body undergoes pains or pleasures in the earth.  For s single evil action, there are two types of sufferings, one for the subtle body and another for the gross body.  When the gross body suffers, the subtle body within does not suffer. Based on these believes, it is said that thoughts are more powerful than actions.  Impressions of thoughts get embedded in the subconscious mind, which always goes along with the subtle body and has the capacity to manifest in subsequent births.

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SOMEWHERE DEEP IN WOMB


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Accept Your MISTAKES


mistakes-hiring

Admit your MiStAkEs

One reason Hitler lost World War II was that he did not fully understand the situation. Bearers of bad news were punished. Soon no one dared tell him the truth. Not knowing the truth, he could not act appropriately.

Many of us are individually guilty of the same error. We do not like to admit to ourselves our mistakes, errors, shortcomings, or ever admit we have been in the wrong. And because we will not see the truth, we cannot act appropriately.

Someone has said that it is a good exercise to daily admit one painful fact about ourselves to ourselves.

Look for and seek out true information concerning yourself, your problems, other people, or situation, whether it is good news or bad news.

1619207_650754518318065_1623110252_nAdopt the motto – “It doesn’t matter who’s right, but what’s right.”

Admit your mistakes and errors but don’t cry over them. Correct them and go forward. In dealing with other people try to see the situation from their point of view as well as your own.

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VAASTU/FENG SHUI — FOR HOME


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Vaastu for home

Complete Vaastu recommendation for home

What is Vastu Shastra?

Vastu deals with the science of the architecture and tells how a building should be planned to channelize the positive energy in our lives. The proper implementation of Vastu techniques has brought peace and prosperity to many households for centuries. Though Vastu started out with the construction rules for Hindu temples, it soon branched out to residential houses, office buildings, vehicles, sculpture, paintings, furniture etc. The science of Vastu is mostly based on directions and the building materials used, along with many other minor factors. Vaastu is the science of direction that combines all the five elements of nature and balances them with man and materials. It is all about the interaction of various forms of best effect on a living person.

vastu-shastra (1)

There are five elements that are really important in Vastu Shastra. These are-

  1. Earth
  2. Water
  3. Fire
  4. Air
  5. Space

According to the traditional knowledge, the entire universe around us is made up of these five basic elements. In fact, the five elements of the nature have to be coordinated with the five elements of the human body as well. This coordination is critical as this is what makes human relationship harmonious. Knowledge of the elements can really make it beneficial for people to know more about Vastu Shastra and also help them realize the reason why they have to make certain changes in the house or put certain things in certain places.

KitchenKIT

The kitchen ideally, should be towards South-East, the direction of God of Fire. Alternatively, it can located in the North West. Cook should face the East or North. All items pertaining to fire or heat should be installed in the South-East corner. The Main-switch, generators etc. should be located in the South-East corner of the house. The water tap in kitchen should be in the North-East direction. It is better if the stone on which food is cooked, is of red color.

Treasury & Strong Room

Wealth and cash should be stored in the North. The person should face towards north when storing or retrieving cash.

Puja/Worship Room

The Puja Room should be located in the North East direction. Alternatively, it can located in the North or East direction. While worshiping, the person should face the East. Idols should not exceed 6 inches in height. One should not sleep in the Puja Room. This direction is ideal for Water storage. Thus underground water tanks, filter etc. should be kept in this direction. Room for prayer and meditation is recommended to be in the north-east corner of the house. Deity or image of god should not face the south direction. Ideal positions are such that you face east or west while praying.

Bedroom

bedroom

The main bedroom should be located in the South. If the bedroom is located in the North, there would be unrest in the family. The bed should be placed in such a way that while sleeping, the head is towards the South. Alternatively, head can face towards the West. One should never sleep with legs towards the South. The inmates should not take meals in the bedroom otherwise they will suffer bad health, especially while they sit on the bed while eating. Divine idols should not be kept in the bedroom. According to vastu, the master bedrooms should be in the South-West corner of the house. If the house has more than one floor then, then it should be on the top most floor.The ceiling should be in level, this makes the energy of the room uniform, which in turn gives one a steady state of mind. Children s room should be in the north west or west side. To have a better concentration they should have a separate study close to their bedrooms.

Jewelry, Heavy Equipment

Jewelry should be kept facing the South. It results increase in wealth. All heavy machines, equipment’s etc. should be kept in this part of the house. Old goods can also be stored in this direction.

Dining Hall

Dining Room should be towards the West as it is ruled by Saturn and it is in the way of Bhooteshwara, the symbolic representation of the hungry. It trees are to be planted in the premises, they can be planted in this direction i.e. the West. Bathroom The bathroom should ideally be located in the East. Alternatively, it can be located in the North-West. But the bathroom should never be located in the North East. Wash basin etc. should be mounted on the Eastern wall of the bathroom. Geyser should be installed in the South-East corner.

Study or Children’s Room

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The North-East, North-West, North, West, East corners are best for a study room. The study room can also be located in this direction. Water Tank on the Roof of the house should located in this direction. This direction is also ideal for Cattle and Granary store.

If the study room and place of worship room are adjacent then it is considered most beneficial. These directions attract the positive effects of Mercury increasing brain power, Jupiter increasing wisdom, Sun increasing ambition and Venus helps in bringing about creativity in new thoughts and ideas.

Land

The length of the land should not be more than twice the breadth. The land should not be too porous i.e. should not absorb water very fast. The slope of the land should be such that water flows towards North-East. The slope of the roof should be such that water should flow towards North or East. The house should not be constructed on the land which is a dead end.

Doors

The Main-Gate should have two panels. The main door should not open inside the house. The doors in the house should not be noisy. The total number of doors, windows and ventilators in the house should be even in number for eg. 2, 4, 6 etc. but should not end with a i.e. 10, 20 etc. If the front door frame is painted black, then the owner might have to face hardship. If the door has cracks or is too old, then the owner will have a tough time gaining respect in society. The doors should be in the North and East. When someone enters, the waves emerging from the doors affect his / her mind because the magnetic waves always flow around us.

Staircase

If the steps leading to the entrance are damaged or broken, then the master of the house will face problems with his career and his expenses will soar. The staircase should ascend clockwise. The total no. of steps should be such that on division by 3, a remainder of 2 should be obtained for eg. 7, 11, 17 etc.

Interiors

Bright colors should not be used in the house. Cold and light colors should be used for painting the house. Paintings or photographs depicting war, sad faces, birds like owl, crow, pigeon, erotic pictures etc. should not be used for decoration in the house.

DIRECTIONS

The architecture of our homes can damage our health, the air we breathe and the water we drink, without our even being aware of it. We all care about our homes and spend time, effort and money, trying to make them more comfortable. Similarly, at the places where we work, environmental stresses contribute to overall load, preventing us to reach our full potential. Resisting these external forces becomes more important for growth and development.

North-West – The room in this direction is suitable for guests and girls.

South-West – The Chief of the house should have his room in this direction.

North-East – No bedroom should be situated in this direction. In such situation there is a possibility of increase number of girls in the family.

South-East – No bedroom should be located in this direction. The children do not take interest in studies. There is no sound sleep. People have much anger. Decisions are generally taken hurriedly.

Bathroom – Bathroom should constructed in the West and South directions and the flow of its drains should be towards North-East.

Toilet – Toilet should be constructed mainly towards South or West. Never build toilets in the direction of eastern corner ant the face should be towards south or West while discharging stool.

Drawing Room – It should be in North-West, South or west direction. The furniture should be kept in South and West directions. Open space should be maximum in North and East directions.

Dining Room  – The dining room should be constructed in South-East. The dining room and kitchen should be on the same floor and it should be adjacent to the kitchen from the left. The entrance to the dining room and the main door should not be facing each other. The dining table should be square of rectangular in shape and should not be attached or folding against the wall.

General Room -Though, it is sparingly used; yet it should be constructed in the North-West.

Guest Room – It should be in North-West corner.

Kitchen -The kitchen must be situated in fire angle, i.e. in South-East.

Store Room – If essential then the store room should be constructed in the southern part of the building, other wise grain and other provisions can be stored in the kitchen or in other rooms and cupboards. Things should not be stored in diwans and box beds because it effects the magnetic environment of the self and the room causing sleeping disorders.

Height of Rooms – According to vastu shastra, the rooms in the northern part of the house should be larger than the rooms in the southern side by 6-9 inches, and lower by 1-3 inches. Height of rooms should ideally be, 12- 14 feet. Doors/Windows As far as doors are concerned, the main door should be larger than the inner doors and all doors should open towards the walls. All windows should be at least 3 feet 6 above ground level, and should be at the same level from the top. Window openings should be on the northern and eastern sides of the buildings

Waste Storage – Daily wastes from the kitchen should be kept covered in the south- west corner of the kitchen.

Water-Tank – It is best to keep it in the North-West, but could be kept in West also.


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Night Dreams Predictions


dreams

MindTech Norms is publishing very helpful topic: Night Dreams Predictions, scientifically what ever stores in our subconscious mind comes out in the form of dream at night, but as far the astrological aspect, there is a meaning of each and every single dream.

Every detail, even the most minute element in your dream is important and must be considered when analyzing your dreams. Each symbol represents a feeling, a mood, a memory or something from your unconscious.  Remember that no one is a better expert at interpreting your dreams than yourself.

We are dedicated to help you find the key to unlocking and interpreting the meanings to your dreams. After understanding your dreams, you will gain a clearer view on your personal relationships, an uncensored view of your real feelings and a better perspective on life issues.

Dream

Meaning

Accident

Obstacles in plans

Aeroplane

Change of environment

Angle

Escape from troubles

Animals

Laborious life

Ants

Difficulties

Apples

Success

Auction

Improvement in business

Banks

Warning of hard times

Banquet

Good time , gains

Barber

Disease, worries

bath in lake

Gain of respect

Bath in river

Relief from disease

Beads

Hard work ahead

Begging

Good luck

Being insulted

Misfortune, quarrels with loved ones

Black Cloths

Grief

Blind Man

Journies, Worries

Building a house

Gain, happy, love

Catch a snake

Victory over enemies

Cemetery

Ill health

Children

Success in business, happy life

Climbing a mountain

Working towards rise in life

Closed Door 

Worries, loss

Clouds

Journies, discord

Commit Murder

Good health

Courting an old woman

Success in wordily affairs

Cow

Promotion , happy news

Crocodile

Enemies, opponents

Cross the river

Difficulties, struggle

Crying Baby

Trials and tribulation

Damsel

Worries

Dancing

Good luck

Dead Boy

Relief from disease

Dead Father

Troubles which will be assisted

Diamond

Warning of trouble

Digging a grave

Gainful property

Digging Earth

Worries

Dirty Toilet

Good luck

Drinking Milk

Good news

Drinking Wine

Prosperity and happiness

Drown

Blemish on character

Eating Bread

Gain of object

Eclipse sun or moon

Planning a long trip with a friend or opposite sex

Enemy

Victory

Escape

Escape from troubles

Fall

Loss of position

Falling from mountain

Misfortune

Falling teeth

Grief

Father

A good time

Fear or terror

Someone trying your downfall

Fire

To meet a beloved

Firing a pistol

Steady rise in life

Flood

Gain in personal affairs

Floating in air

Desire to rise in life

Flowers

Success in next few days

Get in a boat

Blames, Worries

Get out of boat

Relief from worries and gain

Ghost

Watch your relation with friends

Giving kiss

Good deeds

Gold

Beware of taking risk in business

Hair Cut

Clearance of debts

Hearing of many voices 

A joyous event

Hell

Loss in business

Husband

Failure of desires

in a University

Gain of prominent position

intercourse

Gain and betterment

Jungle

Victory over enemies

King

Respect, promotion, gain

Lake

Happy life, success in business

laughing Man

Quarrels, disappointment

Light

Obstacles in promotion

Lion

Victory over enemies

Loosing in sport

Gain in near future

Loose a job

Misfortune

Making a bed

Change of present occupation

Marriage

Worries, Danger

Mirror

Departure of loved

Monkey

Disease and worries

Moon

Meeting a lady or fortune in business

New House

Bad luck

Old house

Good luck

Operation

Recovery from illness

opponent

Overcome of obstacles, happiness

Prayer

Health and happiness

Rain

Quarrels, Disease

Reach sky

Gain of wish

Reading a letter

A good news

Ride an elephant

Gain , Good health

Riding a plane

Work with caution

 Riding of automobile

Warning of poverty

River with clean water

Good news, promotions

river with muddy water

Obstacles

Robbed

Losses

Roses

Happiness, Success

Saint

Peace in life

Scissors

Quarrels with partner

Ship Wreck

Misfortune

Shopping

Domestic happiness or success in business

Sky

Promotion, Happy

Smile

Good luck

Snake

Enemies seeking your ruin

Snake bite

Worries

Stars

Favor from superiors

Storm

Gain

Sun

Wealth, up lift

Sun Rise

Worries, loss

Swimming in clean water river

Promotion

Swimming

Relief from disease

Taking kiss

A sincere friend

Tears, crying

Happiness, good fortune

Thorns

Difficulties ahead

To Donate

Relief from worries

To Drink water

Uphill struggle in profession

Washing cloths

Toiling life for others

Watch

Prosperity, wealth

Water

Happiness, prosperity

Wealth

Poverty

Wearing of bead

Warning of discord

Weeping

Good news, overcome of worries

Winning sport

Misfortune

Worms

Good luck

Wound

Prosperity

Young People

Happiness

We hope you will enjoy this post.

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Strongest Relationship – H & W !


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A student asks a teacher, “What is love?

The teacher said, “in order to answer your question, go to the wheat field and choose the biggest wheat and come back.

But the rule is: you can go through them only once and cannot turn back to pick.”

The student went to the field, go thru first row, he saw one big wheat, but he wonders….maybe there is a bigger one later.

Then he saw another bigger one… but maybe there is an even bigger one waiting for him.

Later, when he finished more than half of the wheat field, he start to realize that the wheat is not as big as the previous one he saw, he know he has missed the biggest one, and he regretted.

So, he ended up went back to the teacher with empty hand.

The teacher told him, “…this is love… you keep looking for a better one, but when later you realize, you have already miss the person….”

 

“What is marriage then?” the student asked.

love_hd-normal

 

The teacher said, “in order to answer your question, go to the corn field and choose the biggest corn and come back. But the rule is: you can go through them only once and cannot turn back to pick.”

The student went to the corn field, this time he is careful not to repeat the previous mistake, when he reach the middle of the field, he has picked one medium corn that he feel satisfy, and come back to the teacher.

The teacher told him, “this time you bring back a corn…. you look for one that is just nice, and you have faith and believe this is the best one you get…. this is marriage.”

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Astrology – For Beginners


lagna_kundli

From unknown long years astrology is giving its everything to the human which people fails to achieve normally. By using or can say by adopting some strong astrology tips and remedies people get their aims in life. Here you will find the full information about astrology; but also get the details about how to solve the issues of human with the help of Astrology. As you are in early stage of learning Astrology or you are finding some remedies, information, you will get your all stuff here. If you are beginner then In few days by reading this topic you can at least able to understands human birth charts and in few months you can fully predict all charts.

As Indian mythology, to predicts persons life; astrologer should have persons birth details like date of birth, birth time and birth place. 10-15 years back those who are very accurate in astrology have their books thru which they calculate the things and get perfect birth charts (horoscopes) on papers but now days it’s getting very simple, to get the birth chart we only needs the horoscope (kundli) software which easily available on internet, simply download and install it. By filling the details there like name, DOB, birth time, place person can get accurate horoscope (kundli).

Types of body:

Astrology is not only related with prediction and remedies, it’s a full package of meditation. The person who is predicting for somebody must know basics of meditation aswell. It helps the person in accurate predictions. And meditation means to known about our-self, to know about inner soul and physical body.

There is three type of human bodies –

  1. Physical Body
  2. Astral Body
  3. Casual Body
  1. Physical Body: – Walking, eating, drinking, doing sex and all type of work which done with the help of body parts like arms, hands, legs etc comes under physical body.
  2. Astral Body: – As i know each and every physical body surrounded with 30 cm colorful circle, which known as Aura or By Luminous Energy. There are camera available in the market to see that hidden energy. This astral body and energy is concerned and connected with Astrology predictions. As every engine produces the energy so that the machine works until the engine is producing the energy similarly, human physical body works because of astral body. It operates the physical body. If person is sick, ill, happy, depressed, under depression just because of astral body. Question arises: what is astral body? In detail human body is not only made of bones, skin, blood etc it’s also made of the strong combinations of planets. With the help of astral body old Indian saints they just closed their eyes and can go any part of the world in fraction of seconds, their soul can travel any part of the world, because the speed of the soul is 10 times fast than light.

Now, the question arises what is horoscope (kundli), what does horoscope (kundli) means! The easiest answer in simple words is that it’s a kind of graph which gives the complete diagrammatic representation of all the planets. It’s a combination of 12 houses, Every single house in horoscope (kundli) predicts differently. As you can see the above image you can find the 12 diamond shape boxes; starts from number 1 and ends to number 12. Each single house has its own characteristics, meaning and prediction.

Before moving further let’s have a quick review in short what we learnt;

  • To predict the person’s life – past, present, future we requires kundli (according to Indian mythology)
  • In kundli there are 12 houses, with its different characteristics.

For the beginners its very important to have the knowledge of all 12 houses.

Without this predictions cannot possible.

First we need to understand how to read horoscope chart.

As you are seeing the chart with 12 houses, each house has its own meaning, significance & prediction. The numbers which are mentioned in the houses are the zodiac sign numbers, its according to the person’s birth, depends upon from which zodiac sign the earth is passing. Every person has different or can be similar zodiac sign positions in birth chart. Why the numbers in the chart is 1 to 12 only? because there are 12 zodiac signs like:

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1 Aries, 2 Taurus, 3 Gemini, 4 Cancer, 5 Leo, 6 Virgo, 7 Libra, 8 Scorpio, 9 Sagittarius, 10 Capricorn, 11 Aquarius, 12 Pisces, that is why every horoscope has only with 12 houses with 1 ascendant, with different zodiac sign placed in every house.

Remember that the zodiac numbers always mentioned/read anti clock wise, as you can see in the chart. 1st house is known as Ascendant, but only 1 zodiac can be placed here, not only here it’s implemented to all other 11 houses too. Yes, one or more than 1 planet can be place in any 12 houses, but again its depends upon the time in which the person takes birth. Keep in mind that Astrologer cannot himself place any planet or zodiac in the birth chart, its naturally all ready placed, astrologer only finds it and predicts accordingly.

So, click here to start 1st Session – About 12 Houses.

published by mindtechnorms

Featured

H H K – Hell Heaven & karma


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Type: Story

Genre: Karma & Emotions

Human is living in Earth similarly when person dies he/she may goes to another unknown part, which still not located. Mythic-ally person goes to god where god rewind human life in short and punish him accordingly. If that human did good karma’s in life then yamdoot sent him to heavens and for bad karma dragged him to hell. This story is similarly based on that, where READER will comes to known about good and bad karma and i will be very happy to know your comments on it.

Somewhere in India:

A house in a very tight lane. Few children s are playing cricket, they fixed their wickets in the middle of the street and a small kid having a ball in his hands trying to bowl hard so that he can take the wicket of opposite team batsman. There is passer going on with his comments, ” Huh, is this the place to play cricket, lane is already too tight to even for walk, and you guys are playing here”. By ignoring that old man anger-ness bowler bowls the ball towards the batsman and he hit the ball in the air. As all kids watching the ball in the air they shouts,” catch it , kamla”. Fielder kamla from bowling side starts running towards the direction of the ball to catch it but bowl is just about to enter’s into devi’s house (one of the house in the lane) window. As ball is entering from devi’s house 1st floor window, big blast sound stops all loud shouts of kids. For a second no-one come to know what happens then suddenly bheem (batsman) realized and shouts with trembling voice,” Oh my god, amma’s house (devi’s house) window mirror broke”. It’s a quick reaction of words and all are running here and there to hide their-selves like they are not playing. Karma hides himself behind the scooter. Chatur (bowler) get into some another’s house. Means, everybody acting like,” I AM NOT INVOLVED IN THIS”. Nearby passers watching this all, some are passing thru and few are stopped to see what next! Kid’s heart beat slowly started coming normal when they find no voice is coming from devi’s house. In few minutes wickets, bowling – batting team of kids disappears by telling to bheem (batsman), ” its all happened because of you, why you can’t place the grounded shot”. Now, its Pin – drop silence in the lane, no passer is walking on the lane, except ME. One voice suddenly comes from the lane, like somebody throws the ball. Yes, the ball was sent back silently from devi’s house broken window. That means somebody is available in the house but whom? Why that person not reacted even when his window glass was broken by kids? The outer look of the house is like its not been colored from past 10-12 years, it’s looking dirty from outside. Just, one step above from the lane i started entered into the house to know that calm person which not reacted good or bad after broken the glass. Because of the high pressure of wind the entrance wooden door was shutting down and opening automatically. The half of the door was shut and half i hold it to enter into the house.

Somewhere in the hell:

On the one corner of hell, one big oil container is placed on the fire and its boiling like anything. Yamdoots having hunters in their hand are pushing the spirits into the big large boiling container. It’s one the punishment given by the yamdoots to spirits for their bad sins. When these spirits will boil into the hot oil, means when they finishes with their punishment they will shift to the another punishment department where they hang upside down on a trees, hands knotted with ropes, eagles – crows with big beaks, come to eat their skins deeper and they shouted with pain until their punishment not finished. After that they accumulate in big hall to know who is going to the HEAVEN for good karma. Similarly, when this lot finished with their punishments they accrued by yamdoots to decide whose punishment has been finished and going to heaven and whose still in hell.

Again in India:

I entered the house with no light. I am not even able to judge where i am placing my foot. I take my mobile out of my shirts pocket and switches on the torch. Then i realize there is only one room in ground floor and the door is closed with hasp, and opposite to that door stairs are going towards 1st floor, the floor from where the ball thrown back to the lane. i shouts loudly” Is here anybody”. No reply, before going to upstairs i decides to open that door curiously. I open it and enter the room; i find the room is very dirty like nobody cleans it from few years. Webs all-around, giving me the feeling that i entered into haunted house but i keep myself calm and take wooden frame from the table to clear the webs. I see one beautiful center table round sofa’s. I walks towards the side corner table by clearing the webs with the help of wooden frame i picked from table, there is a small photo frame placed. I pick that frame with another hand, and clear the dust from the glass and saw the family picture of 4 members. I recognize them as a grandmother seated on a chair with a married son (standing) & daughter in law having 3 years kid in her hands.

Again in Hell:

In a big huge hall, spirits without cloths are together to hear who luckiest is going to heaven. In a big stage one huge golden seat places that is fixed with the floor. It seems like its the seat of any king. All spirits are shouting because of injured wounds. Some are trembling with cold, someone is shouting with pain. All in one scene is horrific, suddenly; one big long flute sound hides all the cracking painful voices of spirits. All yamdoots actively starts working like as some big person about to enter. Soon, one huge-tall giant face person enters into the hall having a big weapon in his shoulder walking towards the stage. He sits on the kings seat and all yamdoots shouts loudly by throwing different flowers towards him,” Yamraaj (the king of hell) you are welcomed”. Yamraaj waves his hand in the air by saying, “stop, that’s it”. ”Who is the next person going to heaven” yamraaj asked. Couple of yamdoots goes to the side of the stage where all the names of the spirits collected in a big jar, one yamdoot put the hand into the jar and take out 1 envelop and give it to yamraaj. Yamraaj quickly without wasting his time opens and shoutedly asks,” TITTU

Again in India:

“He is my Tittu”, i quickly turns towards the voice and see one old lady with a stick in her hand stood at the front of the room’s entrance. Coming nearer to me she again murmurs,” He is my son, tittu”, “he is my son, tittu”. I stand shameless because i entered in the house without knocking the door. Before i fell gilt for it she asked,” who are you, why you came here”. I tell her that the amazed silence coming from your home attracted me. Without asking anything i asked,” Is she your daughter in law and grandson”. ” Yes, they are” she replied.

“Where are they, are they living with you” i asked.

“No, they are not living with me, they are living their own life” she replied.

“Is that person in the picture Tittu, he is your son” again i asked fastly.

She smiles and said “yes, he is my only son tittu”.

“Where is he” i asked.

“Would you like to have a cup of tea with me son” she asked me this time.

“No thanks, aaa i need to go, i think” i replied.

I placed that photo frame on the side corner table and totally forget that i hold one more wooden frame in my another hand, move my steps towards the main entrance with unasked questions.

“Tittu is no more” she told.

Again in Hell:

One the of the yamdoot loudly asks,” Tittu Sachdeva from India, comes to the stage”. One spirit from behind raises his hand and try to speak,” yes, i am tittu, tittu sechdeva”. but unable to speak loudly because of his painful wounds, fleshing his blood all round, blood coming out of body. Somehow yamdoot ables to listen him and tell him to come at front and face Yamraaj. Tittu unable to walk and by crawling slowly and slowly he able to reach to the yamraaj.

“Huu, so you are tittu” yamraaj asked.

“Yes yamraaj dev, i am tittu”.

“this is for your information that the punishment of your bad sins which you done on earth has finished and in hell no more punishment has left so from today’s on-wards you are free from hell and for your good karma we are going to shift you in heaven” yamraaj told.

”come here and do your thumb impression so that we kept in our records that you are free from hell and shifted to heaven” one of the standing yamdoot orders him.

Tittu bend on his knees, unable to stand properly by ignoring the yamdoot’s order he looks the face of Yamraaj for a while and speaks with halting voice,”Yamraaj i have a request at front of you.”

As soon as he speaks couple of yamdoot’s holds his hands tightly and reply, “Have you gone mad, he is yamraaj, king of death, you cannot speak to him directly.”

“Let him speak”, cruel voice comes from direction of golden seat.

“Dear Yamraaj, i have no wish to go to heaven” tittu replied with threatened voice.

“Tittu this is not possible to stay here, you have already being punished for your bad deeds and sins”. yamraaj replied.

” i was waiting this moment for long, please try to listen at once, what i want?” tittu again to yamraaj.

“What you want” yamraaj asked him again by showing angered face.

“I want to go to earth” tittu replied.

Again in India:

“Yes, tittu in dead and he never come to me” old lady replied me.

I turned back and ask, “what”.

She said, “you asked me that where is he, yes he is no more, may it happen at least once, I can see him before i die”.

“Oh, am sorry, what was happened to him” i asked.

“He met with an road accident, and died” she replied.

I feel myself that its not good to ask more from that old lady, because she is living alone and its quite difficult for her to comes out from his dead son’s remembrance after i left her. So, after sitting few minutes with her i came out from the house, and amazed to see raining. I decides to stay at the front of the main door of the house until rain stops.

Again in Hell:

All laughs giantly after heard that tittu requested to go to earth. Again yamraaj waives his hand on air and say,” Silence”.

“Do you know what you are asking for kid” yamraaj asked.

tittu replied,“oh, king of death, i beg to you to please send me to earth anyhow, i want to meet all my relatives, neighbors and friends, either i stay here in hell or want to go to earth”.

“It never happened in the history of hell that any person, intentionally or by escape went or sent to any part of earth like this”. Yamraaj replied.

Tittu requested again, “If you really going to send me to the heaven for my good deeds, why not instead of sending to heaven, send me to earth at-least for 1 day, after 1 day i will come back to hell again.”

Slow murmuring and whispering starts over, all yamdoot’s and another spirits started talking with each other.

All eyes are on yamraaj face to see what he will do, will he punish him for asking this type of stupid question or will he allow him to go to earth. After a long intense silence,

He replied, “ OK fine”, but you have to obey or instructions before going to earth for 1 day and few of the powers of yours we will take back”.

  1. You will not be able to talk, touch anybody or see anybody; we are taking rights back from you.
  2. You will not interfere in nature’s law, you are not human now, you may try to interfere it by making yourself superman or spider-man, so as you are spirit, i am taking your all supernatural power back.
  3. After 24 hours you will automatically comes to hell.
  4. Yes, one good thing for you, before leaving back to hell, you can hug any 1 person of your choice.

“So, these are the instructions which you may follow” yamraaj told.

Without say no and arguing tittu thanked to yamraaj, and now, its all set to send tittu to earth for one day.

Hi Readers, sorry for the interruption, but Mind-Tech Norms decided to stop this part here and let us check the views, likes and comments of Part I for a week, we also want to know are you furious to know what happen next, if yeah please share you thoughts and comments about this story. We do have a very interesting Final part of this story which all-ready prepared and will be published very soon but before that we love to see your comments and likes.

Regards

Covid 19 – treatment – symptoms – precautions


SYMPTOMS:

COVID-19 affects different people in different ways. Most infected people will develop mild to moderate illness and recover without hospitalization.

Most common symptoms:
1. fever
2. dry cough
3. tiredness

Less common symptoms: 1. aches and pains 2. sore throat 3. diarrhoea 4. conjunctivitis 5. headache 6. loss of taste or smell 7. a rash on skin, or discolouration of fingers or toes

Preventions:

Protect yourself and others around you by knowing the facts and taking appropriate precautions. Follow advice provided by your local health authority.

To prevent the spread of COVID-19: 1. Clean your hands often. 2. Use soap and water, or an alcohol-based hand rub. 3. Maintain a safe distance from anyone who is coughing or sneezing. 4. Wear a mask when physical distancing is not possible. 5. Don’t touch your eyes, nose or mouth. 6. Cover your nose and mouth with your bent elbow or a tissue when you cough or sneeze. 7. Stay home if you feel unwell.If you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention.

Treatments:

Self-care

After exposure to someone who has COVID-19, do the following:

1. Call your health care provider or COVID-19 hotline to find out where and when to get a test.

2. Cooperate with contact-tracing procedures to stop the spread of the virus.

3. If testing is not available, stay home and away from others for 14 days.

4. While you are in quarantine, do not go to work, to school or to public places. Ask someone to bring you supplies.

5. Keep at least a 1-metre distance from others, even from your family members.

6. Wear a medical mask to protect others, including if/when you need to seek medical care.

7. Clean your hands frequently.

8. Stay in a separate room from other family members, and if not possible, wear a medical mask.

9. Keep the room well-ventilated.

10. If you share a room, place beds at least 1 metre apart.

11. Monitor yourself for any symptoms for 14 days.

12. Call your health care provider immediately if you have any of these danger signs: difficulty breathing, loss of speech or mobility, confusion or chest pain.

13. Stay positive by keeping in touch with loved ones by phone or online, and by exercising at home.


Watch “WHO AM I? (main kaun hu)” on YouTube


Who AM I? What my actual nature is? Why I AM here in this world?

Watch “WHO AM I? (main kaun hu)” on YouTube

Watch “WHO AM I? (main kaun hu)” on YouTube


Who AM I? What my actual nature is? Why I AM here in this world?

Mistakes when applying for a job


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There are many mistakes that people make when writing their résumé (CV) or completing a job application. Here are some of the most common and most serious.

 

 

The biggest problem is perhaps listing the duties for which you were responsible in a past position: all this tells your potential employers is what you were supposed to do. They do not necessarily know the specific skills you used in executing them, nor do they know what results you achieved – both of which are essential. In short, they won’t know if you were the best, the worst, or just average in your position.

The more concrete information you can include, the better. As far as possible, provide measurements of what you accomplished. If any innovations you introduced saved the organization money, how much did they save? If you found a way of increasing productivity, by what percentage did you increase it?

Writing what you are trying to achieve in life – your objective – is a waste of space. It tells the employer what you are interested in. Do you really think that employers care what you want? No, they are interested in what they want! Instead, use that space for a career summary. A good one is brief – three to four sentences long. A good one will make the person reviewing your application want to read further.

Many résumés list ‘hard’ job-specific skills, almost to the exclusion of transferable, or `soft’, skills. However, your ability to negotiate effectively, for example, can be just as important as your technical skills.

All information you give should be relevant, so carefully consider the job for which you are applying. If you are applying for a job that is somewhat different than your current job, it is up to you to draw a connection for the résumé reviewer, so that they will understand how your skills will fit in their organization. The person who reviews your paperwork will not be a mind reader.

If you are modest about the skills you can offer, or the results you have achieved, a résumé reader may take what you write literally, and be left with a low opinion of your ability: you need to say exactly how good you are. On the other hand, of course, never stretch the truth or lie.

The Essential Beauty Guide


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B Vitamins These are found in wholegrains and wheatgerm and will help to nourish your whole body. Including these vitamins in your diet will give you energy and an overall feeling of well-being, so you are less likely to get sick.
Vitamin A It protects the skin against redness and inflammation caused by skin rashes. Try to eat plenty of dark orange (carrots, sweet potato) and dark green (broccoli and spinach) vegetables every day.
Vitamin C This vitamin helps to build collagen, the “glue” that holds the body’s cells together. It also promotes clear, healthy eyes. Include raw fruits and vegetables especially blueberries, kiwi fruit, citrus fruits, red capsicum and broccoli in your diet.
Zinc It is essential for wound healing and new skin growth. It is found in lean beef, liver, seafood, wholegrains, pulses, milk and eggs.
Vitamin E It guards the skin against premature ageing. Eat lots of sunflower seeds and raw nuts such as walnuts, pecans and almonds as snacks.
Calcium This adds moisture and lustre to hair and nails. The best sources of calcium are healthy oils including canola and olive oil. You should also try to eat lots of almonds, walnuts and seeds.
Potassium This essential product hydrates the skin and regulates normal function of the oil glands keeping the skin moist and supple, not thin and dry. It is found mostly in bananas.

 

Asthma on the Rise


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According to statistics from The Asthma Foundation, over the last twenty years, there has been a worldwide increase in childhood asthma. It dramatically affects the lives of one in four children and one in seven adolescents. It is also a major cause of hospitalisation in children.

Current medical opinion attributes modern environmental conditions to this worldwide increase. Dr. John Avent from the Childhood Diseases Society found that the homes of children who developed asthma had much lower levels of bacterial endotoxin, a substance which is found in dust – in other words, those homes were too clean. Whilst Dr. Avent doesn’t recommend poor cleaning practices, he does maintain that there is an argument for parents allowing their children to play in less sanitary conditions and be less vigilant in this way about their environment.

Martin McFarlane of the Asthma Sufferers’ Association has been involved in subsequent studies which have shown that children who had frequent respiratory infections were less likely to develop asthma as they grew older because of their early exposure to bacterial endotoxins. He maintains that this early exposure helped children to become stronger so they could avoid becoming overly sensitive to conditions that potentially trigger asthma. Dr. Leonie Bryce draws on this research and gives attention to recent studies into asthma which have suggested that the use of antibiotics may be instrumental in causing childhood asthma because early childhood infections protect children against asthma through the development of antibodies. As she says, “For this reason I am against the over-frequent use of antibiotics in treating childhood illnesses of any kind, particularly respiratory infections”.

On a more positive note, more than half of childhood asthma sufferers will not have asthma as adults. However, research has identified a sliding scale of the most important risk factors that can tell a doctor whether a child will have asthma into adulthood. Firstly, young girls are more than two times more prone to having asthma into their adult years. This is a very high risk factor. The next risk factor of less importance but still representing a danger is whether a child has allergies and allergic reactions to a variety of products. Next in importance is whether the child was older than five when asthma first occurred. The most overwhelming risk factor, however, that contributes to asthma in adulthood is if asthma is common in the family (if a child has a parent or sibling with asthma). In this case, there is an extremely high chance that the child will develop asthma into adulthood. Since asthma is a major cause of hospitalisation in children, parents should try to be aware of what triggers their child’s asthma and ensure that he or she is not exposed. For example, if house dust mites are a cause, parents should cover bed mattresses and pillows in vinyl covers. Weekly hot washing of bed linen is recommended and, if possible, blankets and quilts should be exposed to direct sunlight for several hours every week. Also parents are advised to avoid pillows and quilts made of feathers and wool. Smaller items can be put into a plastic bag in the freezer for four hours every fortnight and surfaces in the home should be dusted two or three times a week.

The National Asthma Council makes a number of recommendations for controlling asthma. Apart from parents ensuring that their child avoids the things that cause their asthma, their two most important tips are regular exercise and a healthy balanced diet. According to Dr Mary Tong, paediatric allergist and immunologist at the Royal Australian Hospital in Melbourne, there is no basis for the widely held view that dairy foods increase mucus production in the airways, making asthma worse. Dietary restrictions are not necessary unless there is a proven food allergy. Dr. Tong reiterates that dairy foods are an important source of calcium for strong teeth and bones and are particularly important for growing children.

Another recommendation is that parents should make sure that their family doctor is someone who has maintained a real interest in asthma – they should visit that doctor for regular review in order to check on their child’s correct use of asthma medication. They should aim to know their child’s symptoms and how best to treat them. To this end, the National Asthma Council recommends that parents of young children with asthma develop an Asthma Action Plan. The Plan, created in conjunction with their family doctor, should outline ways to monitor the asthma – by keeping a diary of asthma symptoms, for example. It should also outline the ways in which a parent can recognise worsening asthma, what to do when this happens and how and when to get medical help quickly.

By following the recommendations, parents are given the tools with which to manage, and even control, their child’s asthma.

THE CROWN PALACE – THE TAJ


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The Crown Palace, or as we more commonly know it, the Taj Mahal, is probably one of the most recognisable buildings in the world. It has even been called the eighth wonder of the world. Everyone knows that it is in India, and most people probably know that it was built as a tomb for a dead empress, but do they know the exact history behind this amazing building?

In 1612, the Muslim Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, married for the second time. His bride was Arjumand Banu Begam, although she is better known by her other name, Mumtaz Mahal. Despite the traditions of the time, this wedding was a real love match, the pair having fallen in love at first sight five years earlier, when they were fifteen. Mumtaz became inseparable from her husband, accompanying him on all his journeys and military campaigns. She had fourteen children by him, although bearing her fourteenth child, a girl, led to her tragic death at the age of 39.

Jahan was so overcome with grief that his hair and beard turned white in a matter of months after her death. Before her death, she had made Jahan make four promises to her: build a monument in her name; remarry; love and cherish their children; and finally, visit the tomb once a year on the anniversary of her death. Jahan only managed to fulfil two of these promises. However, luckily for the rest of the world, the monument was one of them.

How could he afford to build such a magnificent monument? Well, luckily for Jahan, the Mughals were extremely rich and very powerful. When he inherited the throne from his father in 1627, he also inherited great wealth. He used this wealth to ensure the Taj Mahal became the most incredible building of its time. He chose a site along side the River Jumna at Agra, once the capital of the Mughal Empire in the sixteenth century. The white marble used in its construction was transported by one thousand elephants, from 200 miles away, and inset with turquoise, jade, sapphires and amethyst. There are inscriptions from the Koran all round the Taj Mahal. Twenty thousand workers and artisans were involved in the project, which started the year after her death, and took twenty-two years to fully complete, during which time Jahan did indeed find himself a new bride.

Rumour has it that Jahan planned to build a mirror version of the Taj Mahal, on the other side of the River Jumna, but this would be built from black marble. Foundations and outline for a garden have been discovered in that vicinity, but the events which followed put a stop to any such building. Some years after the completion of the Taj Mahal, Jahan fell ill. His four sons by Mumtaz Mahal, who he had long since fallen out with, then turned on each other. The ensuing conflict left all but one of them, Aurangzeb, dead. He then overthrew his father in about 1658, and placed him under house arrest in Fort Agra for the rest of his life, barring him from visiting the palace. However, it is believed that, from his prison room, Jahan could look out on his incredible creation. On his death, some eight years later, his body was rescued by his daughter and taken across the river to be laid next to his beloved wife.

It is an interesting story, but what is it about this tomb that makes people from all corners of the world and all religions want to visit it – to risk the three-hour stomach-in-mouth road trip from Delhi to Agra? Simply, it is a breathtakingly beautiful sight. Walking through the main gate, you suddenly see a white marble arch which frames the Taj, acting like a veil covering a woman’s face, slowly being lifted to reveal her true beauty. You can almost see visitors become awestruck as they view it for the first time. This is a strange occurrence in a time when we have seen most of the sights of the modern world in photographs and on television. It is rare for people to get a feeling of sheer amazement any more. However, this is exactly what you get when you see the Taj Mahal. Maybe it’s just the summer heat, as some cynics would have you believe!

If you stay there for any length of time, you will see the different colours of the Taj Mahal. For at different times of the day, the tomb seems to change colour. From the pink of the morning, to the creamy white of evening, and the golden hue when the moon glows on it, the colours are a marvel to behold. Hindu traditions say that these colour changes depict the different moods of a woman. It is difficult to say if that is true, but one thing that is certain, if a building can have a gender, then the Taj Mahal is certainly feminine.

The law of Karma


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Fifty years ago, if you knew whether someone was a liberal or a conservative politically, you didn’t necessarily know a lot about that person’s moral values; party affiliation told you even less about someone’s preferences in restaurants or movies. There was so much diversity within each party that stereotyping was harder and cross-party alliances were much easier.

Nowadays you can make predictions about people’s values and votes from just a few seemingly unrelated things, such as whether they find exotic cuisines appealing or how messy their desks are. A research institute has survived more than five hundred thousand about their personality traits and moral values. They found very consistent differences between political beliefs in a few values.

For example, how strongly do you agree or disagree with these two statements:

1) “Compassion is the most important virtue.”

2) “The world would be a better place if we let unsuccessful people fail and suffer the consequences?”

The liberals in the sample strongly identify with the compassion statement and strongly reject the failure statement. In contrast, those with conservative political beliefs endorse both statements mildly and equally.

What’s going on here? A useful way to think about these differences, especially when discussing view-point on economic policies, is that it’s a battle between the law of karma and the principle of compassion. Conservatives generally want to live in a world governed by karma, the ancient Hindu idea that people reap the fruits of their actions, both good and bad.

Karma was usually thought of as a law of the universe, like the law of gravity. Part of the reason conservatives have historically opposed the growth of the welfare state is the belief that’ it grants people a sort of karmic exemption, allowing those who are lazy or irresponsible to draw resources from those who are more hardworking. Conservatives agree that the world would be a better place if we “let j unsuccessful people fail” whether it be an individual, company or even a country.

Liberals, by contrast, would prefer to live in a world governed by compassion. They are more likely to give people second and third chances. For example, they are more likely to endorse this statement: “It is generally better to show mercy than to take revenge.” Karma and compassion are both necessary pillars of a well-functioning society. Conservatives are right that a world in which the law of karma applies tends to work better than one in which it doesn’t. Results from studies in experimental behaviour illustrate that cooperation rates skyrocket when cheaters expect to be punished.

However, the law of karma is not real. In free-market societies, hard work does pay off much better than laziness, yet cancer, unemployment and other forms of bad luck can strike anyone. And cheaters, exploiters and law-breakers do often prosper. If we want to live in a truly just world, in which honest work is rewarded, cheaters are punished and people can bounce back from misfortune and mistakes, we’ll have to engineer it ourselves. Karma and compassion don’t balance themselves; that’s a job we must do.

 

Recipe for Delicious Apple and Honey Cake


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Ingredients:

  • 100g castor sugar
  • 3 large eggs
  • 70g honey
  • 300g self-raising flour
  • 80g butter
  • 1 tsp cinnamon
  • 3-4 dessert apples: peeled, cored and diced into small cubes

Honey apple sauce

  • 1 cup honey
  • 1 cup apple juice or cider

Pour honey and apple juice or cider into a saucepan and bring to the boil. Stir sauce constantly until the mixture thickens to required consistency. Spoon warm sauce over the top and sides of honey-and apple cake and serve immediately.

This moist honey and apple cake is a delicious dessert alternative for any dinner party or holiday gathering and sure to become a well-loved family favourite.

Method:

  • Heat oven to 180C/ 350F/ Gas mark 4 and grease a 20cm take tin.
  • Add sugar, honey and eggs to mixing bowl and whisk with electric mixer for around ten minutes, until mixture is pale and fluffy in texture.
  • Cut softened butter into small squares and beat into mixture.
  • Sieve flour and add to mixture, along with cinnamon and apple pieces. Beat mixture until all ingredients are combined well.
  • Spoon cake mixture into greased cake tin and place in hot oven for around 45 minutes. Check cake after 25 minutes. If top has browned sufficiently cover with foil to ensure it does not burn.
  • Test cake with a skewer before removing from oven – there should be no uncooked mixture in the middle of the cake.
  • Drizzle honey over top of cake and dust with sifted icing sugar.
  • Serve with cream or thick honey and apple sauce or ice cream.

YOGA


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A Yoga is the physical, mental and spiritual practices or disciplines, which originated in ancient India, with the goal of attaining permanent peace. The term yoga comes from two roots that mean to concentrate. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali refer to it as stilling the altering states of mind.

B Various traditions of yoga are found in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. By the turn of the first millennium, hatha yoga emerged from the tantra form. It is the style that many people associate with the word yoga in contemporary times. Indian monks, beginning with Swami Vivekananda, brought yoga to the world. In the 1980s, yoga became popular as a system of physical exercise across the globe.

C Many studies have tried to determine the efficacy of yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia, asthma and heart disease. In a national survey, long-term yoga practitioners reported musculo—skeletal and mental health improvements. The ultimate goal of Yoga is liberation, though the exact definition of what form this takes is dependent on the philosophical or theological system in question.

D Yoga also serves as excellent training for children and adolescents, both as a form of physical exercise and for breathing, concentration and relieving stress. Many school systems have contemplated incorporating yoga into their physical education curriculum.

E The practice brings forth absolute freedom when the lucidity of material nature and spirit reach a perfect balance. In the Yoga Sutras, Patanjali indicates that the ultimate goal of yoga is a state of permanent peace or KaivaIya. Apart from the spiritual goals, the physical postures of yoga are used to alleviate health problems, reduce stress and make the spine supple. Yoga is also used as a complete exercise programme and physical therapy routine.

F The origins of yoga are a matter of debate. According to Crangle, Indian researchers have generally favoured a linear theory that interprets the origin and early development of Indian contemplative practices as a sequential growth from Aryan beginnings. Some argue that yoga came from the Indus Valley Civilization. The most compelling evidence suggests that it developed in the’ same ascetic circles as the early Sramana movements approximately around the sixth and fifth centuries BC.

G Yoga came to the attention of an educated western public in the mid-19th century along with other topics of Indian philosophy. In the context of this budding interest, N.C. Paul published his Treatise on Yoga Philosophy in 1851. The first Hindu teacher to, actively advocate and disseminate aspects of yoga to a western audience, Swami Vivekananda, toured Europe and the United States in the 1890s.

H During the 1910s and 1920s, yoga suffered a period of resistance because of xenophobic and puritanical sentiments. In the 1930s and 1940s yoga began to gain more public acceptance because of the celebrity interest. By the 1960s, interest in Hindu spirituality in the West reached its peak, giving rise to a great number of Neo-Hindu schools. Since 2001, the popularity of yoga has grown rapidly. The number of people who practise yoga has increased by more than five times since then. In 2013, the American President and his administration declared that yoga had become a universal language of spiritual exercise in the United States, transcending religious and cultural lines.

Radhika Bauerle Radhika Puranam

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