What did the sons of Pandu and also my people do when they had assembled together, eager for battle on the holy plain of Kurukshetra, O Sanjaya?
Having seen the army of the Pandavas drawn up in battle array, King Duryodhana then approached his teacher (Drona) and spoke these words:
“Behold, O Teacher, this mighty army of the sons of Pandu, arrayed by the son of Drupada, thy wise disciple!
“Here are heroes, mighty archers, equal in battle to Bhima and Arjuna, Yuyudhana, Virata and Drupada, of the great car (mighty warriors),
“Drishtaketu, Chekitana and the valiant king of Kasi, Purujit, and Kuntibhoja and Saibya, the best of men, “The strong Yudhamanyu and the brave Uttamaujas, the son of Subhadra (Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna), and the sons of Draupadi, all of great chariots (great heroes).
“Know also, O best among the twice-born, the names of those who are the most distinguished amongst ourselves, the leaders of my army! These I name to thee for thy information.
“Thyself and Bhishma, and Karna and Kripa, the victorious in war; Asvatthama, Vikarna, and Jayadratha, the son of Somadatta.
“And also many other heroes who have given up their lives for my sake, armed with various weapons and missiles, all well skilled in battle. “This army of ours marshalled byBhishma is insufficient, whereas their army,
marshalled by Bhima, is sufficient.
“Therefore, do ye all, stationed in your respective positions in the several divisions of
the army, protect Bhishma alone”.
His glorious grandsire (Bhishma), the eldest of the Kauravas, in order to cheer
Then (followingBhishma), conches and kettle-drums,tabors, drums and cow-horns
blared forth quite suddenly (from the side of the Kauravas); and the sound was tremendous.
Then also,Madhava (Krishna), and the son ofPandu (Arjuna), seated in their
magnificent chariot yoked with white horses, blew their divine conches. Hrishikesa blew the “Panchajanya” and Arjuna blew the “Devadatta”, and Bhima, the doer of terrible deeds, blew the great conch, “Paundra”.Yudhisthira, the son of Kunti, blew the “Anantavijaya”; and Sahadeva and Nakula blew the “Manipushpaka” and “Sughosha” conches.
The king of Kasi, an excellent archer, Sikhandi, the mighty car-warrior, Dhristadyumna
and Virata and Satyaki, the unconquered, Drupada and the sons of Draupadi, O Lord of the Earth, and the son of Subhadra, the
mighty-armed, all blew their respective conches! The tumultuous sound rent the hearts of Dhritarashtra’s party, making both heaven and earth resound.
Then, seeing all the people of Dhritarashtra’s party standing arrayed and the discharge
of weapons about to begin, Arjuna, the son of Pandu, whose ensign was that of a monkey, took up
his bow and said the following to Krishna, O Lord of the Earth!
In the middle of the two armies, place my chariot, O Krishna, so that I may behold those who stand here, desirous to fight, and know with whom I must fight when the battle begins. For I desire to observe those who are assembled here to fight, wishing to please in battle Duryodhana, the evil-minded.
Being thus addressed by Arjuna, Lord Krishna, having stationed that best of chariots, O Dhritarashtra, in the midst of the two armies,In front of Bhishma and Drona and all the rulers of the earth, said: “O Arjuna, behold now all these Kurus gathered together!”
Then Arjuna beheld there stationed, grandfathers and fathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons and friends, too.
(He saw) fathers-in-law and friends also in both armies. The son of Kunti—Arjuna—seeing all these kinsmen standing arrayed, spoke thus sorrowfully, filled with deep pity.
Seeing these, my kinsmen, O Krishna, arrayed, eager to fight, My limbs fail and my mouth is parched up, my body quivers and my hairs stand on end!
The (bow) “Gandiva” slips from my hand and my skin burns all over; I am unable even to stand, my mind is reeling, as it were.
And I see adverse omens, O Kesava! I do not see any good in killing my kinsmen in battle.
For I desire neither victory, O Krishna, nor pleasures nor kingdoms! Of what avail is a dominion to us, O Krishna, or pleasures or even life? Those for whose sake we desire kingdoms, enjoyments and pleasures, stand here in
battle, having renounced life and wealth.
Teachers, fathers, sons and also grandfathers, grandsons, fathers-in-law, maternal uncles, brothers-in-law and relatives,—
These I do not wish to kill, though they kill me, O Krishna, even for the sake of dominion over the three worlds, leave alone killing them for the sake of the earth!
By killing these sons of Dhritarashtra, what pleasure can be ours, O Janardana? Only sin will accrue by killing these felons. Therefore, we should not kill the sons of Dhritarashtra, our relatives; for, how can we be happy by killing our own people, O Madhava (Krishna)?
Though they, with intelligence overpowered by greed, see no evil in the destruction of families, and no sin in hostility to friends,
Why should not we, who clearly see evil in the destruction of a family, learn to turn away from this sin, O Janardana (Krishna)?
Ignorance of the law is no excuse and wanton sinful conduct is a crime unworthy of knowledgeable people.
In the destruction of a family, the immemorial religious rites of that family perish; on the
destruction of spirituality, impiety overcomes the whole family.
Dharma pertains to the duties and ceremonies practised by the family in accordance with scriptural injunctions.
By prevalence of impiety, O Krishna, the women of the family become corrupt and, women becoming corrupted, O Varsneya (descendant of Vrishni), there arises intermingling of castes!
Confusion of castes leads to hell the slayers of the family, for their forefathers fall, deprived of the offerings of rice-ball and water.
By these evil deeds of the destroyers of the family, which cause confusion of castes, the eternal religious rites of the caste and the family are destroyed.
We have heard, O Janardana, that inevitable is the dwelling for an unknown period in hell for those men in whose families the religious practices have been destroyed!
Alas! We are involved in a great sin in that we are prepared to kill our kinsmen through greed for the pleasures of a kingdom.
If the sons of Dhritarashtra, with weapons in hand, should slay me in battle, unresisting and unarmed, that would be better for me.
Having thus spoken in the midst of the battlefield, Arjuna, casting away his bow and arrow, sat down on the seat of the chariot with his mind overwhelmed with sorrow.
Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita,the science of the Eternal, the scripture of Yoga, the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna, ends the first discourse entitled:
“The Yoga Of the Despondency of Arjuna”